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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

Coition - commendam,   pp. 253-272 PDF (18.8 MB)


Page 266


( 266 )
COMtIM14A Nafi, is ufed by fome Writers of Anatomy,
fit the flefhy Part of the Nofe jutting out over the upper Lip,
see lOS E.
COLIUMNA Oris, is fometimes ufed for the Uvula. See
Uvtt A.
COLUMN.E Carnex, in Anatomy, called alfo Lacertuli,
and Columne Cordis; are feveral fmall Mufcles in the Ven-
tricles of the Heart; derived, and, as it were, detach'd from
the Parietes of the Ventricles, and connefed by tendinous
Extremities to the Valves of the Heart. See HEART.
Thefe little Coluymns, or Pillars, being faffen'd to the Pa-
tietes of the Heart on one fide, and the Tricufpid and Mi-
tral Valves on the other; do, by their Contraaion in the
Syflole of the Heart, draw out the Valves; and by that
means, not only Ihut the Orifices of the Veins, but more
exaaly clofe the Ventricles in their Syflole. See SYSTOLE,
and DIASTOLE.
COLURES, in Geography and Afironomy, two great
Circles, imagined to interfea each other at right Angles, in
the Poles of the World. See CIRCLE.
The Colures pafs, one of 'em thro' the Soyltitial, and the
other thro' the Equinoffial Points of the Ecliptic: whence
the firff is denominated the Solflitial and the fecond the E-
qu ioial Colure. See SOLSTITIAL, and EQUINOCTIAL.
The Equinoffial Colure determines the Equinoxes; and
the Soiflitial, the Sollices. See EQUINox, and SOLSTICE.
By thus dividing the Ecliptic into four equal Parts, they
mark the four Seafons of the Year. See SEASON.
The Word is deriv'd from the Greek x'AO-, mutilus, or
truncatits, and get tail; as appearing with the Sail cut oaf;
becaufe never feen entire above the Horizon.
COLYBA, a Term in the Greek Liturgy, fignifying an
Offering of Grains, and boil'd Pulfe; made in honour of the
Saints, and for the fake of the Dead.
Balf'amon, 'P. Goar, Leo Allatius, and others, have wrote
on the Sub'eEt of Colybas: the Subilance of what they have
faid, is as follows.
The Greeks boil a quantity of Wheat, and lay it in little
Heaps on a Plate; adding beaten Peas, Nuts cut fmall, and
Grape-flones, which they divide into feveral Compartments,
Separated from each other by Leaves of Parfley. A little
Heap of Wheat thus feafon'd, they call xoxu~ct.
They have a particular Formula for the Benediffion of
the Colybas; wherein, praying that the Children of Baby-
lon may be fed with Pulfe, and that they may be in better
Plight than other People, they defire God to blefs thofe
Fruits, and thofe who eat them, becaufe offer'd > to his Glo-
r, to the honour of fuch a Saint, and in memory of the
7faithful Deceafed.
RAalfamon refers the Inflitution of that Ceremony to S. A-
thanafhis ; but the Greek Synaxary to the Time of Yu-
lian the Apo{late.
Many of the Latin Divines having fpoke injurioufly of
this Ceremony, Gabriel Archbifhop of Philadelphia, has
wrote a Difcourfe in its Vindication; wherein he endeavours
to Ihew, that the Defign of the Colyba is only to represent
the Refurreffion of the Dead, and to confirm the Faithful
in the Belief thereof.
The Colybae, he fays, are Symbols of a general Refurrec-
tion ; and the feveral Ingredients added to the Wheat, fig-
nify fo many different Virtues.
COMA, in Medicine, a fort of a fleepy Difeafe, otherwife
called Catapaora ; confidling in a violent propenfity to fleep,
whether Sleep enfue, or not. See SLEEP.
If Sleep do enfue, the Difeafe is called Coma Somnolentum,
wherein the Patient continues in a profound Sleep; and
when awak'd, immediately relapfes, without being able to
keep open his Eyes.
If he do not fleep, but is continually awak'd with fright-
ful Dreams, 'tis called Coma Vigil: and here too his Eyes
are fhut, and he appears afleep.
The Caufe of the Coma Somnolentum, may be any thing
that prevents the Courfe of the Spirits ; as a cold, humid
temperature of the Brain; hot putrid Vapours ascending in-
to the Head, and flopping the Canals of the Animal Spi-
rits; narcotick Vapours, Lec.
The Coma Vigil is fuppofed to arife from the Conflict, or
jarring Mixture of Bile with 'Pitilita; the one urging to
fleep, the other to waking. Hence, the Patient fleeps ei-
ther not at all ; or, at moPi, but for a moment; is uneafy,
flarts, rifes up, and Sometimes throws himfelf on the Perfons
near him; his Eyes, all the time fai clofed.
The Remedies for a Coma, are thofe which occafion great
Evacuations ; as violent Clyfiers, or Vomirives; Medicines
that purge, and dry the Brain; and thofe which occafion Re-
vulfion of Humours; as Veficatories, Cauteries, Eec. to which
may be added volatile Spirits, Salts, and moll Cephalicks.
COMA, in Grammar. See COMMA.
COMA BERENICES, Berenice's Hair, in Affronomy, a Con-
Rellation of the Northern Hemifphere. See CONSTELLATION.
The Stars in the Conflellation Coma Berenices, in Pto-
lomy's Catalogue are 3; in *ycho's 13; in the Britannic
V     | I .
I;o
Catalogue 40. The Order, Names, I
Magnitudes, fc. whereof, are as folloi
Stars in the Conflellation Com
Names and Sitnations of
the Stars.
Firft of all in the Circle of the Hair,?
to the South                 ;
10
3dof theprec. from the Cufpsor Point
2d of the preced.
That preced. in the Cufp
In the Cufp towards the North
15
That under this
That following this
Firft of 3 contiguous ones behind this
Middle of the contiguous ones
20
Subfeq. and lefs
Anoth.following all thefe,and more S.
That preced. feveral under the Hair
z5p
Preced. in the Hair
30
More South in the Hair
35
0A Lon
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21
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"Y 24 57
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nX 18    S9
UX 25 43
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Former of z inExtrem. of the Hair S. 19  I 19
Pofterior in the Extremity of the Hair  o  6
AN'
Latitude.
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19 59   7
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All thefe Stars Ptolomy ranks among the Isnformes of Leok
and the CluPler of little Stars, in form of a Nebulous one,
between the Lion and Bear, he calls fimply TAbty~ov ; as re-
fembling an Ivy-leaf: the pointed Part whereof is turn'd to.
wards the North, and the Sides, bounded by the 7th and 2zd
Stars. Bayer, inflead of Hair, gives a Sheaf of Corn.
COMBAT, an Engagement; or a Difference decided by
way of Arms.
Authors diflinguilh in an Army, between a Combat and a
Battel; the latter expreffing the general Aafion of the whole
Army: the former a particular Skirmiffi, or Engagement of
a fingle part: fo that the Combat is properly a Part of a
Battel. See BATTEL.
COMBAT, in Law; or, Single-CoMBAT; a formal Trial,
between two Champions, of fome doubtful Caufe or Quar-
rel, by the Sword, or Batoons. See TRIAL.
This form of Proceeding was antiently very popular; and
obtain'd not only in Criminal, but alfo in Civil Caufes * be-
ing built on a Prefumption, that God would never grant the
Victory, but to him who had the befi right. See DUEL.
We find the Combat as early as the Time of Otho: The
lail admitted in England, was 6 Car. I. between Donald
Lord Rhee, or Red, and David Ramfey Efq; in the Pait0-
ed Chamber.
The Form and Ceremony of the Combat, is defcrib'd'in
the Grand Coutuwmier of Normandy: The Accufer, firfl,
fwore to the Truth of his Accufation; the Accufed gave
him the Lye: upon which, each threw down a Gage, Ot
Pledge of Battel ; and the Parties were committed Prifoners
till the Day of combat. See CHAMPION.
Hiflorians tell us, that Aipbonfo King of Caftile, defi-
ring to abolifh the Mofarabic Rite, and to introduce the Ro-
man Office: the People oppofing it, 'twas agreed to termi-
nate the DifTerence by Combat 5 and to leave the Caufe to
the Decifion of Heaven.
COMBAT is alfo ufed for the folemn Games of the anti-
ent Greeks and Romans, in honour of their Gods j as the
Olympic Games, Pythian, Iflhmiean, and Nemean Games;
the Ludi Adiaci, Circenfes, &c. which fee in their Places,
OLYMPICS ISTHMAEAN, LC.
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