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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

Coition - commendam,   pp. 253-272 PDF (18.8 MB)


Page 256


COL                          251
in, or within feven Miles of London ; to fine, amerce, and
imprnion them at difcretion.
the Number of Fellows was antiently go, till King
Charles II. increas'd their number to 40 3 and King Yames'
II giving 'em a new Charter, allow'd the Number of Fel-
lows to be enlarg'd, fo as not to exceed fourfcore,; reserving
to himnfilf and Succelfors, the Power of placing and difpla-
cing any of 'em for the future.
The College are not very rigorous in alerting their Privile-
ges; there being a great Number of Phyficians, fome of
very good Abilities, who praclife in London, &c. without
their Licenfe; and are conniv'd at by the College: yet, by
Law, if any Perfon, not exerefly allow'd to pra&ife, take on
him the Cure of any Difeale, and the Patient die under his
hand, 'tis deem'd Felony in the Pra&icer.
In x696, the College made a Subfcrip ion, to the Number
of 42 of their Members, to fet on foot a Difpenfatory, for
the Relief of the fick Poor: fince that, they have ereted
two other Difpenfatories. See DISPENSATORY.
Grejbam COLLEGE, or COLLEGE of Philofophy; a College
founded by Sir ilho. Greiham, and endow'd with the Re-
venue of the Royal-Exchange: One Moiety of this Endow-
ment the Founder bequeath'd to the Mayor, and Alder-
men of London, and their Succeffors, in trufi, that they
fhould find four able Perfdns to read within the College, Di-
vinity, Geometry, AfIronomy, and Mufick ; and to allow
each, befides Lodging, 50 Pounds per Ann.
The other Moiety he left to the oCompany of Mercers, to
find three more able Perfons, to rdad Civil Law, Phyfick,
and Rhetorick, on the fame Term'; with this Limitation,
that the feveral Leaurers fhould read in Term-time, every
Day in the Week, except Sundays ; in the Morning in La-
tin, in the Afternoon the fame in Engli'h: that in Mufick to
be only read in Engljih.
In this College formerly met the Royal Society, that noble
Academy, inflituted by K. Charles II. and celebrated thro'-
out the World, for their Improvements in Natural Know-
ledge. See their Hiflory and Polic~y, under SOCIETY.
COLLEGE of Heralds, or COLLEGE of Arms, a Corpora-
tion founded by Charter of King Richard III. who granted
'em feveral Privileges ; as, to be free from Subfidies, Tolls,
Offices, Uec. See HERALD.
They had a fecond Charter from King Edlward VI and
a Houfe built near Dooors-Commons, by the Earl of Verby,
in the Reign of King-Henry VII. was given 'em by the Duke
of Norfolk, in the Reign of Queen Maryi which Houfe is
now rebuilt.
Of this Collegiate Society, are three Officers Filed Kings
of Arms, Reges Armorum Anglicorum. See KING at Arms.
Six Heralds. See HERALD. And four Purfuivants. See
PURSUIVANT.
COLLEGES of Common La'zv. See INNs of Court, and
Chancery.
COLLEGES for diflabled Soldiers, Seamen, &c. See Hos-
PITALS.
COLLEGIANS, a Religious Se&, form'd among the Ar-
minians and Anahaptifts in Holland ; fo called, becaufe of
their Colleges, or Meetings the firff Sunday in each Month;
where every one has the fame Liberty of expounding the
Scripture, Praying, &c.
They are faid to be all either Arians, or Socinians: They
never Communicate in the College, but meet twice a Year
from all Parts of Holkind at Rinsbourgb, a Village two Miles
from Leyden, where they Communicate together; admit-
ting every one that prefents himfelf, without regard to his
Sed or Opinion. They have no particular Minifiers, but
each officiates as he is difpos'd. They never baptize with-
out plunging.
COLLEGIATE, or COLLEGIAL Churches, are thofe
which have no Bifhop's See; yet have the antient Retinue
of the Bifhop, the Canons and Prebends. See CHuRCH,
CANON, SC.
Such are, among us, WeJiminfler, Rippon, Windfor, &c.
Of thefe Collegiate Churches there are two Kinds; fome
of Royal Foundation, others of Ecclefiaflical Foundation:
each of thenm, in Matters of Divine Service, are regulated
in the fame manner as the Cathedrals. See CATHEDRAL.
There are even fome Collegiare Churches which have the
Epifcopal Rights. Some of thefe Churches were antiently
Abbies; which, in tirne, were feculariz'd. See ArBY.
- The Church of St. Peter's Wefiminfler was antiently a
Cathedral; but the Revenues of the Monaflery being by AA
of Parliament iQ Eliz. vefiled in the Dean and Chapter, it
commenc'd a Collegiate Church.
In feveral Caufes, the fliling it Cathedral, infiead of Colle-
giate Church of Wejiminflor, has pccafion'd Error in the
Pleadings.
COLLETICS, in. Medicinej fuch Remedies as join, and
glue together the Separated Parts, or Lips of a Wound, or
Ulcer; in orader to re-eflablifh 'em in their natural Union.
See AGGLUTINANT, WOUND, aC.
C OL
Colleticks are more deliccative than Sia
than Epulotics. See SARCOTICS, and El
Among Cotletics are rank'd Litharge, A
The Word comes from the Greek xcmn
has the Virtue of gluing together.
COLLIQUATION, in Pharmacy, the
together two, or more folid Subilances; or
by Fufion, or Diffolution; as Wax, Mucila
Gums, Cc. by Moiflure. See Pus ION, Di
COLLIQSATION is alfo us'd to exprefs
ment, and Difpofition of the Animal Fl
from a too lax Compages; whereby they
feveral Glands, and' particularly thro' thofe
than they ought; which occaflons Fluxe
but moftly, profufe greafy, clammy Swea
If this Colliquation continue, it generall
Hedic Fever, and is ufually a Concomi
HECTIC.
The curative Intention in this Cafe, is
Confiftence to the Juices by Balfamicks
and the hardening of the Solids by Subafl
COLLIQUATIVE Fever, is a Fevec
Diarrhiea, or profufe Sweats, from too loc
the Fluids. See COLLIOUATION; fee alfc
COLLISEUM, or COLISEUM, in th
ture, an oval Amphitheater, built at Rom
the Place where flood the Pond of Nero's
In this were feen Statues, representing
the Empire; in the middle whereof fi
holding a golden Apple in her Hand. TI
lifeum, is alfo given to another Amphithc
ror Severus.
In thefe Collifea were reprefented Gam
Men and wild Beafts: There is now littl
ther of them; Time and War having red
See AMPHITHEATRE.
The Word is form'd from Col/ZefumÖ .
Colo;Jius of Nero, that flood near it: or, according
dini, from the Italian Colifeo.
COLLISION, the Fridlion, or Percuflion of to
moving violently with different Directions, and
again leach other.
For the Laws of the Colli/on of Bodies, fee PER
COLLUSION, a fecret Underfianding between
ties, who ylead, or proceed fraudulently againfi ea
to the prejludice 01 a WIFra.
In the Canon Law, Collufion, in Matters of Benefices, vj
cates the Benefice; and incapacitates the Perfon from holdis
any Benefice at all.
COLLUTHIANS, a Religious SeEt, who arofe about di
Beginning of the IVth Century; on occafion of the Mildne
and Indulgence Ihewn to Arius, by Alexander Patriarch i
Alexandria.
Several People being fcandaliz'd at fo much Condefce
fion; and among the rell Collutbhas, a Prieft of the fame City
he hence took a Pretence for holding feparate Affemblic
and by degrees proceeded to the Ordination of Priells; as i
he had been a Bifhop: pretending a Neceflity for this Ai
thoriy, in order to oppofe Arius.
To his Schifm he added Herefy; teaching, that God di
not create the Wicked; that he was not Author of the Evi
that befal Men, &c.
He was condemn'd in a Council held at Alexandria b
Oflus, in the Year 33 .
COLLYRIDIANS, antient Hereticks, denominated fro,
a little Cake, call'd by the Greeks Collyra, which they o0rie
to the Virgin AMary.
This Sed, it feems, confifed chiefly of Arabian WonIt
who, out of an Extravagance of Devotion to the Vigi
met on a certain Day in the Year, to celebrate a fain
Feafi, and to render Divine Honours to Mary as to a 00
defs; eating the Cake which they offer'd in her Name. S
Epiphanins, who relates the Hiflory of this fuperilitious cf
remony, laughs at it.
COLLYRIUM, in Medicine, an external Remedy, pa
ticularly appropriated to Difeafes of the Eyes. See Eyz.
There are two Kinds of Collyriumss; the one liquid, ti
other dry.
Liquid Collyriums are compos'd of Ophthalmic Poude
or Waters; as Rofe-Water, Plantain-Water, that of- Few
Eyebright, Eec. wherein they diffolve Tutty, White Vitri
or fome other proper Pouder.
The fDry, are Troches of Rhafis, Sugar-candy, iris, Tut
prepar'd, W'c. blown into the Eye with a little Pipe.
*The fame Name is alfo given to Unguents upsd for d
fame Purpofe; as Unguent of Tutty, and feveral others.
Lafily, the Name is given, tho improperly, to fome Oll
Medicines ufed againfi Venereal Ulcers.
The Word Collyrium comes from the Greek x&AA1OOP; ii
that, according to Martinius, from  aoAY f; 1- b
it glues up, and prevento Deiluxions.
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