University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
Link to University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
Link to University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
History of Science and Technology

Page View

Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

Coition - commendam,   pp. 253-272 PDF (18.8 MB)


Page 253


AO lr
( 253 )
Or the King, or fqr the Expences of
fettled by Ad of Parliament, that
:k at the publick Expence: fo that
eight, to all Perfons who carry their
twer. See SEIGNOR AGE.
-England, are efieem'd contraband
ported; All foreign Species are. al-
ent, made in 1673, to be fent out of
Gold and Silver in Bars, Ingots,
e Seflion of Parliament in 1718, En-
put a flop to this Licenfe, which
left Metals; but in vain5 the Par-
he Bill, without coming to any Re.
is efleem'd one of the leafi perfea
at Sevil and Segovia, the only Ci-
er are firuck. 'Tis true, there are
ru, and other Provinces of the Spanigh
ntities of Pieces of Eight, and other
and Silver, that, in this refped, it
s no State in the World where fo
s in that of the King of Spain.
The Czar firikes no Money but
te Cities of Mofco, Novogrod, 7iwere,
mnay be now added Petersburg, the
favounite Uty o his Izarian Tvdjefty. I no Coinage or each
of thefe Cities is let out to farm, and makes part of the Roy-
al Revenue.
Perfian COINAGE. All the Money made in Perfia, is
firuck with the Hammer: and the fame may be underflood
of the refl of Afia and America, and the Coafis of Africa,
and even Mi'fcovy; the Invention of the Mill being not
yet got out of Europe, nor even eflablifh'd in every Part of
it. The King's Duty, in Perria, is feven and a half per
Cent. for all the Monies coin'di which are now reduced to
Silver and Copper: there being no Gold coin'd there, except
a kind of Medals at the Acceffion oa new Sophi.
T'Ie COINAGE 1of Fez and i'unis is not under any Difci-
pline; each Goldfmith, Jew, and even private Perfon, under-
taking it at pleafure: which renders their Money exceeding
bad, and their Commerce very unfafe.
COITION, the Intercourfe between Male and Female in
the Adt of Generation. See GENERATION.
It is obferv'd, that Frogs are 40 Days in the Ad of Coi-
tion. .Bartholine, &c. relate, that Butterflies make 130 Vi-
brations of the Wings in Coition.
COITION is alfa Sometimes ufed for that mutual Attrac-
tion, or Tendency toward each other, which is found between
Iron and the Magnet. See MAGNET.
COLARBASIANS, a Sed of Hereticks in the Ild Cen-
tury; fo called from their Leader Colarbafus, a Difciple of
Valentine: who, with Marcus, another Difiple of the fame
Maffer, maintain'd the whole Plenitude, and Perfe~ion of
Truth and Religion, to be containad in the Greek Alphabet;
and that 'twas upon this account Jefus Chrifl was called the
;Alpha and Omega.
COLARIN, in Architeffure, the little Frife of the Capi-
tal of the clifean and Doric Column; plac'd between the
Afiragal, and the Annulets: called by Vitruvius, Ilypiotra-
cheliiim. See Fr. Iz E, Sc.
COLARIN is alfo ufed for the Orlo, or Ring, a-top of the
Shaft of the Column, next the Capital; called alfo Cindure.
See CINCTUR E.'
COLATURE, in Pharmacy, the Separation of a Liquor
from fome Mixture, or Impurity, by percolating, or firain-
ing it thro' the narrow Pores of a Cloth, or other Matter;
which will give paifage to the fine, and pure Part, but inter-
cept the groffer. See PERCOLATION, and FILTRATION.
COLCOTHAR, in Natural Hiflory, Lec. There are two
Kinds of Colcotb'ar, Natural and Faaitious.
The Natural is otherwife called Chalcitis ; being a red
Vitriol, brought from Germany.; form'd from the common
green Vitriol, calcin'd naturally by fome fubterraneous Fire.
&e CHALCtIS.
The Artificial is alfo a green Vitriol, calcin'd a long time
by an intenfe Fire; and by that means reduc'd to the red-
' efas of Blood.
COLCOTHAR Vitrioli, is particularly us'd for the Dregs, or
Remains, left-at the Bottomi of the Veqel, after the Diflilla-
dtionof Vitriol. See VITRIOL.
COLD, Something devoid of Heat, or which contains in it
ho Particles of Fire. See FIRE.
This Definition is agreeable to the Sentiments of moft of
ithe modern Philofbphers, who make Cold a mere negative
Term;j and fuppofe the Thing to confilf in a mere Privation,
or Diminution of Heat.
Others define Cold, much on the fame Principle, to be
that State of the minute Parts of a Body, wherein they are
more flowly and faintly agitated than thofe of the Organs-of
Wling: In which Senlfe, -Cold is a mere Term of Relation;
and> 4dhdce the fame Body becomes liable to be perceiv'd  ot
or t~OfI as its Particles are in a greater or lefs degreevof Mo-
3
C O L
tion than thofe of the fenfible Organs. See SENSE, FaEEi.
I N G, Ee!C.
P   a t  is fhePOS'd to confis{ in a particular Motion of the
Parts lof the bot Body; and hence the Nature of Cold, which
is its ioppofire, is eafily deducible: For Cold, we find, extin-
guill res, or rather abates Heat; whence it feems to followl
that thofe Bodies are cold, which check and refirain the Mo-
tion of the Particles wherein Heat confifts. See HEAT.
N ow, there are three Kinds of Bodies which may do this,
viz. either thofe whofe Particles are perfedly at refi ; or
thofei whofe Particles are indeed agitated, but lefs violently
than thofe of the hot Body to which they are applied: or,
laflly, thofe whofe Particles have a Motion proper for exci-
ting the Senfation of Heat, but move with a different Deter-
mination; fo as to retain and change the Motion of the Par-
ticle s of the Organ.
Hence, there arife three different Kinds of Cold, or cold
Bodtes: The ili is, that Cold common to all hard Bodies,
whi(:h confifis in the Refi of their Parts. The ad is that
whic-h arifes on plunging any Part of the Body in Waver; which
confiifls in th'is, that the Parts of our .Prcecordia being more
brifldly agitated than thofe of the Fluid, communicate part
of their Motion to it. The 3d, the Cold felt on colledt-
ing even warm Air with a Fan, or in blowing hot Breath out
of our Mouth, with the Lips clofe Shut . which confifls in this,
that the dired Motion of the Particle's of Air, do in fome
meafure change and rebate the Motion and D)etermination of
the Parts of the Body: And hence it is, that a cold Body can-
not cool another without heating it felf. Hence alfo it is, that
the more Parts of a frigid Body are at retl, the more mutt
the Particles of a warm Body applied to heat 'em, lofe of
their Motion, and by confequcnce oftheir Heat. Thus a Mar-
ble having more quiescent Parts than Wood, which is full of
Pores and Interflices, is felt colder than Wood. Hence alfo
we fee why Air, near Marble and other denfe Bodies, feels
fomewhat colder than in other Places.
On this Principle, the two latter Kinds of Cold appear
fomewhat more than Privations : The Particles inducing the
Cold, may be efleem'd real frigorific Corpufcies ; and Ccld-
nefs be deem'd a real Quality as well as Hotnefs. See QUA-
LITY, FRI(1ORIFIC, SC.
Thefe Particles do not only check the Agitation of thofe
continually diffus'd from the inner *Parts of the Animal to
the outer; but, having an elaflick Power, bend and hang
about the Filaments of the Body, pinch and fqueeze them i
and hence that acute pungent Senfation called Cold.
That Cold is more than a mere Relation, or Comparifon,
is evident from its having real and pofitive Effeds; fuch as
Freezing, Congelation, Condenfation, Rarefadtion, Burfling,
Leic. See FREEZING,   SC.
Dr. Clark takes Cold to be owina to certain nitrous, and
other faline Particles, endued with particular Figures Poper to
produce fuch EfFeds. Hence, Sal Ammoniac, Salt P1etre, or
Salt of Urine, and many other volatile and alkalizate Salts,
mix'd with Water, increafe its degree of cold very fenfibly.
Hence alfo that popular Obfervation, that Cold prevents
Corruption; which, however, mull not be admitted without
an Exception : fince, if a hard, porous Body have its Inter-
flices fill'd with Water, and this be too much dilated by
freezing, thG including Body will be burfl. And thus it is,
that Cold proves deffrudtive to the Parts of fome Plants. See
ICE, FROST, CONDENSATION, RAREFACTION,       SC.
COLIC, in Medicine, a cruel, fevere, gnawing Pain, felt
in the lower Venter; fo called, becaufe the ordinary Seat of
the Diforder, was antiently tuppos'd to be in the Intefline
Colon.
Phyficians ufually diflinguifh three Kinds of Colic, the Bi-
lious, Iindy, and  Nephrtic.
The bilious Colic has its rife from certain Sharp, bilious,
flimulating Humours, which being diffus'd thro' the Intef-
tines, vellicate their Fibres, and occafion a Senfation of Pain.
Tho Willis takes the Part principally affeded to be the Me-
fentery.
Dr. Sydenbam obferves, that the bilious Colic ufually at-
-tacks about the beginning of Summer; that it's generally at-
tended with a Vomiting of bilious green Liquor; that the
Patient complains of exceffi ve Heat, great Gripings, Faint-
nefs, Wc. and that if it be not foon remedy'd, it is apt to turn
into the Iliac Paffion. See ILIAC Pajilon.
2Paglivi notes, that if the Patient fweat much, and be
much enfeebled; the Difeafe is apt to degenerate into a Palfy.
The Cure, he fays, depends on Bleeding, gentle Cathartics,
and Enemas; and if it arife from a Crapula, an Emetic is
to precede: after which, the Cure is to be compleated with
proper Anodynes.
The Wind Colic is vagabond, never flaying in any fixed
Place  being produc'd by windy Vapours, which fwell and
difiencl the Inteflines they are inclos'd in.
The Nephritic Colic is felt particularly in the Reins,
whence it has its Name; the Greek sfdf fignifying Rein.
See NEPHLITIC.
It
* MM7
i
I
I
i
i
H
i
qI
i
U U 0


Go up to Top of Page