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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

Clausum - coining,   pp. 233-252 PDF (18.5 MB)


Page 251


0 I
( 2r )
a common Money fince the Difco-
Europeeans.
ed where the Cauris are not current.
e or lefs favourable to this Fruit, the
gher or lower: In a common Year,
nfl a Pefcha, or Halfpenny Sterling;
nd to 1- of a Farthing.
'odern COINS, or Monies: 1ofe of
St,.
v2tient COINS.
rtion of the Jewilh COINS.
20    2 Shekel
IZco 12.0 60 Maneh
Minah Hebraica
60000 600013ooo0o fTalent
Solidus Aureus, or Sextula, worth
Siclus Aureus, worth
A Talent of Gold, worth
I. s.   d. Sterl.
00: 00: I W1
00 : Of : I -J
00 : Oz : 3 I
} o6: I6: rou
342 : 03 : 09
00 : Ia: : 2
I : I6: 6
5475: :00: o
Value and Proportion of the antient Grecian COINS.
s. d. qrs.Sterl.
Lepton      -_0                             :0 1
3;~
7 Chalcus       -                      0 0: 0 3
14  z Dichalcus    -        -         0 : o  7
z8  4 Y2 Heemiobolium            -    00: 2
568    4 zObolus         _            o  I * -'
liz i6 8 4 2 Diabolum        -    -   o2 2
224 32 16 8 4 2 Tetrobolum            o.    0
36- 48 24 Z 6 3 ii, Drachma     -     0o7 3
C6z  48 z2.412    z Iidrachmum I..-     1::?
1324 112 96 48  I 6 4 2 lTetradrachm.Stater 2: 7 0
t66c03841.0 16o ;o 7t 5 IaII:Ipentadraclhmum 3 :2:
Note, Of thefe the Drachma, Didrachm, Wc. were of Sil.
ver, the refc for the mofi part of Brafs. The other
]Parts, as Tridrachm, Triobolus, Wc. were fometimes
coin'd.
Note alfo, the Drachma is here, with the generality ol
Authors, fuppos'd equal to the Denarius: tho there's
Reafon to believe, the Drachma was fomewhat the
weightier. See DRACHMA.
TheGrecian Gold Coin was the Stater Au- l.    s   d.
reus, weighing two Attick Drachms, or half(
of the Stater Argenteus ; and exchanging> o: I6  I1
ufually for z 5 Attic Drachms of Silver ; in
our Money       -          -          J
According to our Proportion of Gold to Silver  I 00  9
There were likewife the Stater Cyzicenus, ex-')  :
changing for z8 Attick Drachms, or
Stater Philippicus, and Stater Alexandrinus,
of the fame Value.
Stater Daricus, according to 7ofepJeus, worth?
50 Attick Drachms, or                     *  .3
Stater Cr2fius, of the fame Value.
Value and Proportion of the Roman COINS.
s. d. qrs. Sterl.
Teruncius         -                      o   of:   7 1
zSemilibella              -       0o: 0  I S
Libella                               T
4  2.As      S         -     -
;  I 5 2Seflertius    -     -
2. 10fi~TQuinarius
sl 20 IO5    2 $Una~atUS    _        0   3   3
IVi-oriaus
40 1 0  1O ]z Danarius           0   7:3
Note, Of thefe the Denarius, Viaoriatus, Seffertius, and
fometimes the As, were of Silver, the reft of Brays.
There were fometimes alfo coin'd of Brafs the Triens,
Sextans, Uncia, Sextula, and Dupondius.
Ex The Rsman Gold Coin was the Aureus, which l.  s. d.
*    weigh'd generally double the Denarius; the(
Value of which, according to the firfil Pro- (I: 4  3
portion of Coinage mention'd by Pliny, was.)
According to the Proportion that obtains now
armongft us wot                 _0I            9
According to the Decuple Proportion, menti-?
on'd by Livy and :Juhus Pollx, worth -
According to the Proprtion mention'd by T'a-
CItMS, aud which afterwards obtain'd, where-  6 z
by the Aureus exchang'd for 2 5 Denarii, its    V
Valut
COIN, in Architecqure, a kind of Die, cut diagonal-wlfe,
afterthe manner of the Flight of a Staircafe ; ferving at bot-
tom to fupport Columns in a Level i and at top to correa
a  h          I up~~,  a   Vtopto.ore
the Inclination of an Entablature, fupporting a Vault
Thefe Coins have alfo the fame eftfet with round Baluf-
ters, which are not inclined according to any Flight.
COIN is alfo us'd for a Coiner, or folid Angle, compos'd of
two Surfaces inclined towards each other; whether that An-
gle be exterior, as the Coin of a Wall, a Tree, Lec. or inte-
rior, as the Coin of a Chamber, or Chimney:' from the Word
Cuneus, Wedge. See QuoIN.
COINAGE, or Coining, the Art or AS of manufakuring,
or making Money. See MONEY.
COINING, is either performed by the Hammer or the
Mill.
The firfi Method is now little ufed in Europe, efpecially
in England, France, &c. tho the only one known till the
Year 1553, when a new Machine, or coining Mill, having
been invented by an Engraver, one Antoine !Rrucher, was
irfi try'd in the French King's Palace at Paris, for the coin-
ing of Counters. Tho fome attribute the Invention of the
Mill to Tarin, a famous Engraver, who, in reality, was no
more than an Improver of it; and others to Atlry Olivier,
who had only the Infpedion of it.
The Mill has met with various Fate fince its firfl Inven-
tion; being now us'd, and again laid by, and the Hammer re-
fum'd: but it has at length got that footing, by the Neatnefs
and Perfeaion of the Species firuck with it, that there ap-
pears no probability of its being again difus'd. See MILL.
In either kind of coining, the pieces of Metal are fiamn'd,
or flruck with a kind of Molds, or Coins, wherein are engra-
ven the Prince's Effigies, with the Arms, Legend, & c. The
manner of preparing and cutting of which, fee under GRA-
VING.
The firff Operations in coining are the mixing, and melting
of the Metal.
For the ifl, it is to be obferv'd, that there are no Species
coin'd of pure Gold or Silver, but always a quantity of Alloy
of Copper is mix'd with them : The Reafons are partly the
Scarcity of thofe two Metals, partly the Neceffity of making
them  harder by fome foreign Admixture i and partly to de-
fray the Expences of coining. See ALLOY.
Now there are two Kinds of alloying, or mixing: the
firfi where the Gold or Silver has not been ufed for Money
before ; the other where feveral Kinds of Species, or Ingots
of different Titles and Values, are to be melted down into
a new Money.
i The proportioning of the Alloy with the fine Metal is ea-
fy in the firfi Cafe, in the other more difficult : The Arith-
meticians make a long Dodrine of it, which fee under AL-
LIGATION.
Yet is it readily efR6ed by the following Method, taken
from the anonymous Author of the Treatife at the End of
that of Mr. Ioifard, vi,.
Write down the feveral Matters to be melted, their Qua-
lity, Weight, and Finenefs, in two diffind Articles ; the one
containing thofe above the Standard, the other thofe under
it: By e31culating the firfl, you fihall have the Excefs, by
the latter the Defea. Then comparing the two Produds,
you will find, by Subtraaion, how much Alloy mult be added
to bring the feveral Matters to the Finenefs rcquir'd.
For the melting, if the Metal be Gold, 'tis done in Earthen
Crucibles; if Silver or Copper, in Iron ones. See CR UCIBLE.
There are two Kinds of Furnaces proper for the melting
of Metals; thofe with Wind, and thofe with Bellows: See
each explain'd under the Article FURNACE.
When the Gold or Silver are in .Bahieo, i. e. are entirely
melted, they are flirr'd and brew'd together; the Silver and
Copper with an Iron Stirrer, the Gold with one of bak'd
Earth. In this State they are pour'd into Molds, or Frames,
for the caffing 'em into Plates, or Sheets: the Method of
doing which, is exaaly the fame with that us'd by the
Founders, in Sand ;  both with regard to the Frames, the
manner of working the Earth, and of ranging the Models or
Patterns. See FOUNDRY, fee alfo FRAME, and MOULD.
The Models are flat Plates of Copper, about xI Inches
long, and nearly of the thicknefs of the Species to be firuck.
In each Mold are placed eight of thefe to make Plates for
Guineas, ten for Half Guineas, five for Crowns, Cc. and in
proportion for Copper. All the difference between calling
the Plates of Gold, and thofe of other Metals confiding in
this; that the latter are taken out of the Crucibles with La-
dles, and pour'd into the Aperture of the Mold; and that
fr GGold, the Crucible is taken off the Fire with a kind of
Tongs, and thence pour'd into the Mold.
Thu4s far the Procefs is the fame, in coining either with
the Mill or the Hammer: When the Plates are taken out of
the Molds the difference commences : fo that here the Ar-
ticle of Coining divides into two Branches.
COINING by the Mfill, or Mill'd Money.
The Plates being taken out of the  Molds, fcraped, ad&
brulh'd, are pafs'd feveral times thro' the Mill, to flatten
'em)
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C 01


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