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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

Clausum - coining,   pp. 233-252 PDF (18.5 MB)


Page 241


b/p.  h
( 2q41 j
Warm and dry, to eorre* a fetid
t, diflipate Films in the Eyes, for-
:r, and flop Vomiting. They are
Lethargies, and other Difeafes
ape the Gatherers, grow and fwell
full of a Gum us'd in Medicine,
There is alfo an Oil drawn from Cloves by Diflillaiion;
which, when new, is of a gilded white Colour, but reddens as
it grows old: 'tis us'd in Medicine ,as a fovereign Remedy
fib the Tooth-ach, and in Compofitions with the fame View
as the Fruit. It is alfo much us'd among the Perfumers.
The Natives call the Tree, Chamque, the 'Perfians and
Arabs Karumfel, and the ASrks Kalafour. They make
feveral Preparations both of the Flowers and Fruit.
CLOUGH, or Draugbt, in Commerce, an Allowance
of two Pounds in every hundred Weight for the turn of the
Scale; that the Commodity may hold out weight when fold
out by retail.
CLUNY, or CLUGNY, a celebrated Abbey of RZene-
dilin Monks, in a City of that Name; being the Head,
or Chief of a Congregation denominated from them. See
AwBEY, and BENEDICTINS.
It is fituate in the XMafonnois, a little Province of France,
on the River Grone; and was founded by William Duke of
Berry and Aquitain; or, as others fay, by the Abbot Ber-
won, fupported by that Duke, in the Year 910.
This Abbey was antiently fo very fpacious and magnifi-
cent, that in 1245. after the holding of the firff Council of
LyoIs, Pope Innocent IV. went to Cluny, accompanied with
the two Patriarchs of Antioch and ConJfantinople, twelve
Cardinals, three Archbifhops, fifteen Bilhopsj and a great
number of Abbots; who were all entertain'd, without one
of the Monks being put out of their place: tho S. Louis, Q.
Blanche his Mother, the Duke of -Artois his Brother, and
his Sifter; the Emperor of Conflantinople, the Sons of the
2Kings of A4rragon and Caflile, the Duke of Burgundy, fix
Counts, and a great number of Lords, with all their Retinue,
were there at the fanie time.
Cluny, at its firil Eredtion, was put under the immediate
Protcaion of the Apofiolick See; with exprefs Prohibition to
all Secular and Ecclefiaffick Powers, to diflurb the Monks
in the Poflieffion of their Efets, or the Elealion of their
Abbot. By this they pretended to be exempted from the
Jurifdiion of Bilhops 5 which, at length, gave the Hint to
other Abbies to infifl on the fame. See ABBOT.
Cluiny is the Head of a very numerous and extenfive Con-
gregation: In effec, it was the firfl Congregation of divers
Monafteries united under one Chief, fo as only to constitute
one Body, or, as they call it, one Order, that ever arofe.
See CONGREGATION, and ORDER.
CLYPEUS, CLIPEUS, or CLYPAUM, a Buckler; a
piece of defenfive Armour, which the Antienfs us'd to carry
upon the Arm, to fecure them from the Blows of their Ene-
mies. See SHIELD, and BUCELER.
The Figure of it was either round, oval, or fexangular:
in the middle was a Bofs of Iron, or of fome other Metal,
with a fharp point.
CLYSSUS, in Chymifiry, is one of the Effeas, or Pro-
duaions of that Art; confifding of the mofb efficacious Prin-
ciples of any Body, extra&ed, purify'd, and then re-mix'd.
See CH YM16TRY.
Qr a COy./    is when the feveral Species, or Ingredients
If a ody, afe ppard and purify'd Teparately, and then
combmn'd again. Thus, Salt, Sulphur, Oil, Spirit, and Mer-
cury, reaffiembled into one Body, by long        Weigefion,  ic.
make a Clydffis. Thus,
CLYSSus of Antimony, is an agreeable acid Spirit, drawn
by Diflillation from Antimony, Nitre, and Sulphur mix'd
together. See ANTIMONY.
W here is alfl a Clyffuis of Vitriol, which is a Spirit drawn
,by Diflillation from Vitriol diflolv'd in Vinegar: this is us'd
by Phyrcians in various Difeafes, and to extra& the Tinc-
tures of reveral Vegetables.
CLYSS t is us'd among fome Authors for a kind of Sapa,
or Extra&, made with eight Parts ofthe Juice of a Plant, and
one of Sugar, feeth'd togethl  ito the Conftience of Honey.
CLYSTER, in Medicin4'alliquid Remedyj or Injealion,
'introduc'd into the Inteflines by the Fundament, in order to
irefrefh them, loofen the Belly, moiflen and foften the Fe-
ces, diflipate Wind, Wc.
Clyfrers are made of Bran-Water, and Milk, but more
utually of Deco&ions of certain Herbs, to which are added
h1oney, brown Sugar, fometimes Catholicon, and other Drugs.
Clyfiers are either E olfien4, Carminative, Lenitive, Ap
tringent, Laxative, Anodpne, Uterine, Antifebrijfc, Nou-
rithig, &c.
Uterine CLYSTERS, are Injefions into the 1terus, c
Womb. See PESSARY.
osenihing CLYSrsRS, are thofe apply'd with derign to
. nourish Perfons who cannot take in any Aliment at t4e Mouthi
COGA
Hildanus tells ts, that AWueri, a Phyfician,; &ld a Weir h
of Quality fix Weeks by Clyjlers compos'd of Capon&,eflh,
and other Fowls, boil'd to a Pulp, with Yolks of Eggs, ~P-
plied twice a Day.
'Tis difficult, owever, to conceive how Cyfie ould
nourilh; and the Cafe is brifkly controverted in the Menioirs
of the French, Royal Academy, between M. Littre, who
maintains the Negative, and M. Lemery.
The Arguments urg d by the firt?, are, that the Materials
o the Clyfrer, for want of the ordinary Pailage, want the
neceffary Preparations to be converted into Nouriflhment;
and befide that, are out of the lRoad for getting into the
Blood : For in the firfi of the large Inteflines, call'd the
Ceecum, is a Valve called Valvida 2Bauttuni; to oppofe the
paffage of any Food into the fmall Inteffines: And there
are no Laaeal Veinis in the large Inteflines, but abundance
i the finallones. But the Ladteals are the only Canals that
can carry the Chyle into its Receptacle, and the Chyle the
only Sub{lance that can nourith.-
To this M. Lemery obje&s, that very great Anatomiflc
have found Laaceals in the large Inteffines, tho in fmall
number: But tho there were none, adds he, the Mefaraic
Veins are indisputably difiributed to rhefe Inteilines; and
may eafily be fuppos'd to pump the mofi fubtil Part of a
Broth, and carry it into the Blood. M. Mery has pafs'd a
Liquor immediately from the large Inteflines into thefe
Veins; befides that, the animal Machine is fo porous thro'-
out, that Nature feems to have intended an extraordinary
way of conveying Fluids into the Blood, to be ready on ex-
traordinary occafions.
This Notion will appear incanteflable, if M. ANoriois The-
ory of the Paiage of the Urine be admitted. See URINE.
lierodottis fays, the Egyptians were the firfl who invented
CQyflers; or rather, who apply'd 'em to ufe. Galen and
Pliny add, that they learnt the thing from a Bird of their
Country, call'd Ibis; which they frequently obferv'd to make
this kind of Injedion with its Beak, and afterwards to dif-
charge it felf feveral times. Others fay, that the Ciconea,
or Stork, firil taught Men the Application of Clyfiers.
The Word comes from the Greek XAJC, lavo, a/duo, I walh.
CNEMODACTYLIUS, in Anatomy, a Muffle, other-
wife called Extenfor tertii Interiiodii digitorum. See Ex-
TENSOR termii Internodii, &c.
COACH, a Vehicle for commodious travelling, furpended
on Leathers, and mov'd on Wheels.
In England, and throughout Europe, the Goaches are drawn
by Horfes, except in Spain, where they ufe Mules. In a
part of the Eafi, especially the Dominions of the great Mo-
gul, their Coaches are drawn by Oxen. In Denmark they
Sometimes yoke Rein Deer in their Coaches; tho rather for
Curiofity than Ufe.
The Coachman is ogrdinarily placed on a Seat rais"d before
the Body of the Coach. But the Spanih Policy has dif-
plac'd him in that Country by a Royal Ordonnance; on oc-
cafion of the DRuke d' Olivares, who found that a very im-
portant Secret whereon he had conferr'd in his Coach), had
been overheard, and reveal'd by his Coachman: Since that
times the Place of the Spanjih Coachman, is the fame with
that of the French Stage-Coachman, and our Pollillion, viz.
on the firfl Horfe on the left.
The Invention of Coaches is owing to the Fren7c7h: yet are
not Coaches of any great antiquity, even in France; fcarce
reaching beyond the Reign of their Francis I.
Their ufe. at their firff rife, was only for the Country
and Authors obferve, as a thing very fingular, that there
were at firfI ro more than two Coaches in Paris; the one
that of the Queen, and the other that of fDiana, natural
Daughter of Henry II. The firff Courtier who had one,
was 7ean de Laval de Bois 5Dauphin; whofe enormous
h3ulk dilabled him from travelling on Horfeback.
One may hence judge how much Vanity, Luxury, and
Softliefs have grown upon our Hands in later Days; there
being now computed in that fame City no lefs than 1 5o0o
es.
Coaches have had the Fate of all other Inventions to be
brought by leps and degrees to their Perfe&ion; at prefent
they feem to want nothing, either with regard to Eafe ot
Magnificence. Louis XIV. of France, made feveral tump-
tuary Laws for restraining the exceflive Richnefs of Coaches,
prohibiting the ure of Gold, Silver, &c. therein; but they
have had the Fate to be neglesed.
Goaches mnay be divided into two Kinds ; thofe that have
Iron Bows, and thofe that have not: Both the one and the
other havewo principal Parts, the -Body, and the Train, or
Carriage.
Tl    d   is that part where the Pantngers are ditpos'd;
and the Carriage that which filfa ins the Body, and to
Hich the Wheels are faflen'd, that give Motion to the whoe
Machine,
Coachs  ate diftinguifh'd, with regard to their Strt ,
into teaches, properly fo call'd,  Chariots,  alhe  and
!Oerinus.  Witg regard to the Circumfiances of their
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