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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

C - capillary,   pp. 137-152 PDF (20.2 MB)

Page 151

the adjoining Figure: Thus, he bears Ermin, a Canton Ar-
gent, charged 'with a Cheveron Gules.
CANTON, is alfo us'd for the Spaces left between the
Branches of a Crors or Saltier.
CANTONED is us'd in Architeture, when the Corner of
a Building is adorn'd with a Pilafler, an angular Column,
ruffick Quoins, or any thing that projeas beyond the naked
of the Wall.
CANTONED, in Heraldry, is when the four Cantons, or
Spaces round a Crofs, or Saltier, are filled up with any
Pieces. He bears Gules, a Crow Argent, canton'd with
four Scollop Shells. The Word is alfio us'd when there are
little Pieces in the Cantons, or Spaces of any principal Fi-
gure of an Efcutcheon.
CANVAS, or CANEVAS, properly, a coarfe Cloth, ufu-
ally very open, and wove regularly in little Squares; us'd
for the Ground of Tapefiry Work, Painting, Lc. Hence
Canvas is us'd, efpecially among the French, for the Mo-
del, or firil Words whereon an Air, or Piece of Mufick is
compos'd, and given to a Poet to regulate and finifh. The
Canvas of a Song, is certain Notes of the Compofer, which
fhew the Poet the Meafure of Verfes he is to make. Thus,
.ZDa Lot fays, he has Canvas for ten Sonnets againil the
CAN ULA, or CANNULA, in Chirurgery, a little
Tube, or Pipe, which the Chirurgeons leave in Woundsand
Ulcers, that they dare not, or chufe not to heal up; be-
caufe fill fuppurating. The Canula is of Gold, Silver, or
Lead ; and is perforated, that the Pus entering within it,
may fall upon a Sponge, dipp'd in Spirit of Wine, and
plac'd at the Orifice, to keep the Ulcer warm, and to pre-
vent the external Air from entering: Some of thefe Can-
úul have Rings, whereby to keep them fafi in the Wound;
and others have Holes with Ribbons thro 'em, to bind 'em
down. Some are round, others oval, others crooked.
There is a particular kind of thefe Cannuhe, form'd taper-
wife, with a Skrew faflen'd to one End, in manner of a
Cock : Its ufe is, for the Difcharge of the Water out of
the Abdomen, after Tapping, in an Afcites, or Dropfy.
To this End it is inferted into the Body, thro a Hole near
the Navel; made with a pointed Infirument, and fome-
times a Punch; and is faflen'd in its Place by a Bandage,
and guarded trom any Injury ot the Clothes,E5c. by a Cale,
or Cover. It has this advantage over the common Tap-
ping; that by means thereof, the Water is drawn out
vhen, and in what meafure the Patient pleafes. See TAP-
There are likewife a kind of Cannulke for the Applicati-
Dn of aatual Cauteries; they are made very Shallow, and
re, in effeit, little more than Hoops; thro the Aperture
thereof, the adual Cautery is convey'd; which, by this
neans, is kept from damaging the adjacent Parts. See
CAP, a Garment ferving to cover the Head, and made near-
l of the Figure thereof: TheEra of Caps and Hats, is re-
ferr'd to theYear 1449 ; the firil feen in thefe Parts of the World
being at the Entry of Charles VII. into Roten: From that
ime they began, by little and little, to take place of the
Hoods, or Chaperons, that had been us'd till then. M. le
rendre, indeed, goes further back; they began, fays he,
nder Charles V. to let fall the Angles of the Hood upon
he Shoulders, and to cover the Head with a Cap, or Bon-
net: When this Cap was of Velvet, they call'd it Mortier;
vhen of Wool, limply fBonnet: the fir{} was lac'd, the lat-
er had no Ornament befides two Horns, rais'd a moderate
leight, one of which ferv'd in covering and uncovering.
None but Kings, Princes, and Knights, were allow'd the
lJfe of the Mortier. See MORTIER.
The Cap was the Head-drefs of the Clergy and Gra-
luates. Parquier fays, 'that it was antiently a part of
he Hood wore by the People of the Robe ; the Skirts
whereof being cut off, as an Incumbrance, left the round
Cap an eafy commodious Cover for the Head; which
round Cap being afterwards affun'd by the People, thofe of
he Gown chang d it for a fquare one, firflc invented by a
F7rcnchman, call d Patrofillet: He adds, that the giving
of the Cap to the Students in the Univerfities, was to de-
tote that they had acquir'd tull Liberty, and were no lon-
ger fubjed to the Rod of their Superiors; in Imitation of
the antient Romans, who gave a  ileus, or Cap, to their
Slaves, in the Ceremony of making them free : whence the
Proverb, Vocarefervos ad Pi/eum. Hence, alfo,on Medals,
he Cap is the Symbol of liberty, whom they reprefent
iolding a Cap in her right Hand, by the Point.
The Chinefe have not the ufe of the Hat, like us ; but
wear a Cap of a peculiar Strudure, which the Laws of Ci-
vility will not allow& them to put off; 'tis different for the
lifierent Seafons of the Year: That us'd in Summer, is in
Form of a Cone,endingattopina Point. 'Tis madeof a very
beautiful kind of Mar, much valu'd in that Country, and
.in'd with Sattin ; to this is added, at top, a large Lock of
red Silk, which falls all around as low as the Bottom: fo
5I )
that, in walking, the Silk fluatuating regularly on all aidet,
makes a grace ful Appearance: Sometimes, inflead of Silk,
they ufe a kind of bright red Hair, the Luflre whereof no
Weather effaces. In Winter they wear a Plufl Cap, bot-
der'd with Martlet's or Fox's Skin; the refi like thofe for
the Summer. Nothing can be neater than thefe Caps;
they are frequently fold for eight or ten Crowns: but they
are fo lhort that the Ears are expos'd. See TURBANS ; fee
alfo HATS.
Square-CAP. The Cap, or Sonnet, is a Mark, or Orna-
ment of certain Charaders: Thus Churchmen, and the
Members of Univerfities, Students in Law, Phyfick, Z&c.
as well as Graduates, wear fquare Caps. In moil Univer-
fities, Dodors are diflinguiffh'd by peculiar Caps, given
them in affiuming the Dodorate. Wickliff calls the Canons
of his Time R~ifurcati, from their fquare Caps. Pafquier
obferves, that in his Time, the Caps wore by the Church-
men, &ex. were call'd fquare Caps; tho, in effed, they
were round, yellow Caps.
The Cap is fometimes aifo usd as a Mark of Infamy:
In Italy, the _e-xs are diflinguifl'd by a yellow Cap; at
Lucca by an orange one. In France, thofe who had been
Bankrupts, were oblig'd ever after to wear a green Cap;
to prevent People from being impos'd on in any future Comr
merce. By feveral Arrets in 1584, x622, i628, 1688, it
was decreed, that if they were at any time found without
theirgreen Cap, their Protedfion fhould be null, and their
Creditors impower'd to call them into Prifon : but the
Thing is not now executed. See BANKRUPT.
CAP, in a Ship, is a fquare Piece of Timber, put over
the Head, or upper End of a Mail, having a round Hole
to receive the Mail. By thefe Caps, the Top-mrafis, and
Top-gallant-malls, are kept fleady and firm in the Treffel-
trees, where their Feet fland ; as thofe of the lower Mails
do in the Steps. See MAST.
Priefi's-CAP, in Fortification. See BONNET a' Pretre.
CAPACITY, in a Logical Senfe, an Aptitude, Faculty,
or Difpofition to retain, or hold any thing. Our Law al-
lows the King two Caparcities, a Natural, and a Political;
in the firil he may purchafe Lands to him and his Heirs ;
in the latter to him and his Succeffors. The Clergy have
the like.
CAPARASON, or CAPARISON,' the Covering, or
Clothing laid over an Horfe; efpecially a Sumpter, or
Horfe of State. Antiently, Caparafons were a kind of Iron
Armour, wherewith Horfes were cover'd in Battel. The Word
is Spanijh, being an Augmentative of Cape, Caput, Head.
CAPE, or Promontory, in Geography, a Head-Land; or a
piece of Land running out beyond the refI, into the Sea. Si-
cily was call'd by the Antients frinacria,by reafon of its three
Capes, or Promontories; reprefented on Medals, by three
Mens Legs join'd together at the head of the Thigh, and
bent in the Knee ; which pretty nearly refembles the Tri-
angular Figure of that Ifland. See PROMONTORY, CHER-
CAPE, in Law, a Writ touching Plea of Lands and Te-
nements ; fo term'd, (as mool other Writs are) from the
Word which carries the chief Intention or End of it. The
Writ is divided into Cape Magnum, and Cape Parvmnm;
which in their Effedq or Confequence are alike, as to the
taking hold of Things immoveable : in the following Cir-
cumtfances they differ ; iff, In that the Cape Magnum, or
grand Cape lies before; and the Cape Parvum, or petit
Cape, after. Cape Magnum fuummons the Defendant to an-
fwer to the Deftult; and befides to the Demandant: Cape
Parvum only to the Default. Ingham fays, 'tis call'd pe-
tit Cape, not becaufe of fmall force i but becaufe contain'd
in few Words.                                  I
Cape Magnum is thus defin'd in the old Nat. Brev.
Where a Man hath brought a Precipe quod reddet of a
Thing that touches Plea of Land, and the Tenant makes
default at the Day to him given in the original Writ;
' then this Writ fhall be for the King to take the Land
into his Hands : and if the Tenant come not at the Day
given him by the Writ, he lofes his Land.'
Cape Parvum, or petit Cape is thus defin'd, Ibid. ' Where
the Tenant is fummon'd in Plea of Land, and comes at
the Summons, and his Appearance is recorded; and at
the Day given him, prays the View; and having it
granted, makes default: then lhall this Writ iffue for the
King, Oc.
CA-PE ad  Valentiam, a Species of Cape Magnum, lo
call'd from the End to which it tends: It it thus defcrib'd,
Where I am impleaded of Lands, and I- vouch to warrant
another, againil whom the Summons ad Warrantandum
' hath been awarded, and the Sheriffcomes not at the Day
given; then, if the Defendant recover againil me, I fhall
have a Writ againlfl the Vouchee; and fhall recover fo
' much in value of the Lands of the Vouchee? if he has
' fo much: otherwise, I Ihall have Execution of fuch
' Lands and Tenements as defcend to him in Fee; or, if
' he purchafe afterwards, I  Shall have  a Re-fummons

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