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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

C - capillary,   pp. 137-152 PDF (20.2 MB)


Page 147


( '47 )
crown'd with Flowers, Myrtles, Wc. The Canegphora, in
thefe Ceremonies, always march'd the firfi; the Philofo.
pher or Prietd next, and the Choir of Mufic follow'd. The
Canepbhore were always Girls of Condition; and were at-
tended by an old Woman who carry'd'em a Seat.
CANEPHORIA, was a Ceremony, which made Part of
a Feaff, celebrated by the Maids the Eve of their Marri-
age-Day; call'd alfo Pro/elia; which fee. The Canephoria,
as pradis'd at Athens, confidled in this ; that the Maid
condu'ed by her Father and Mother, went to the Temple
of Minerva; carrying with her a Bafket full of Prefents, to
engage the Goddefs to make the Marriage happy; or ra-
ther, as the Scholiaff of 7lheocritus has it, the Bafket was
intended as a kind of honourable Amends made to that
Goddefs, the Protedrefs of Virginity, for abandoning her
Party ~ or a Ceremony to appeafe her Wrath.
CANICULA, a Name proper to one of the Stars of
the Conflellation Canis Minor i call'd alfo fimply the zDog-
flar: by the Greeks, Procyon. Canicula is the ioth in Or-
der in the Britannic Catalogue, in 7jycho's and Ptolomy's
'tis the zd. 'Tis fituate in the Thigh of the Conflellation;
its Magnitude between a firfr and fecond: Its Longitude,
Latitude, -Cc. fee among thofe of the other Stars of that
Conflellation. Canicula rifes on the I6th of 7uly: Its ri-
fing and fetting with the Sun, occafions what we call
CANICULAR, or Dog-Days, the Time during which
the Sun rifes and fets with Canicula, which it does from
the 24th of Yuly to the 78th of Augu/t. Some Authors tell
us from Hippocrates and Pliny, that the Day Canicula rifes,
the Sea boils, Wine turns, Dogß begin to grow mad, the
Bile increafes and irritates, and all Animals grow languid ;
and that the Difeafes ordinarily occafion'd in Men, are burning
Fevers, Dyfenteries, and Phrenfies. The Romans facrific'd
a brown Dog every Year to Canicula at its rifing, to appeafe
its Rage. They fuppos'd Canicula to be the Occafion of
fultry Weather, ufually felt in the Dog-Days; but by Mif-
take: in five or fix thoufand Years more, Canicula may
chance to be charg'd with bringing Froff and Snow; for it
will rife in November or December. The Egyptians and
Ethiopians began their Year at the rifing of Canicula;
reckoning to its rife again the next Year, which is call'd
the Annus Canarius.
CANINE Appetite, an inordinate Hunger, to the Degree
of a Difeafe. See BULIMIA.
CANINI DENTES, in Anatomy, are two Teeth in each
Jaw; one on each fide the Incifores and Molares. They
are pretty thick and round, and end in a fharp Point; have
each one Root, which is longer than the Roots of the Jnci-
fores. Their proper ufe is to pierce the Aliment; becaufe
the Fore-Teeth are not only apt to be pulled outwards by
the Things we hold and break with them, but likewife
becaufe they are lefs fubjed to Blows than the Molares:
therefore above two thirds of them are bury'd in their A1-
veoli, or Sockets; by which their Refiflance of all lateral
Preffures, is much greater than that of the Molares.
CANINUS Mufculus, the fame as Elevator Labii SU-
perioris; fee ELEVATOR.
CANIS MAJOR, the Great DOg, in AfIronomy, a Con-
flellation of the Southern Hemifphere. See CONSTELLA-
TION.
The Stars in the Conflellation Canis Major, Ptolomy
makes z8; 5itycho obferv'd only 13; 5in the Britannic Ca-
talogue they are 32. Their Order, Names, Places, Lon-
gitude, Latitude, Magnitude, F-c. are as follows.
Stars in the Conflellation CANIS MAJOR, or Great Dog.
Names and Situation of      CA
the Stars.
Preced. of the bright Informes  II
Subf before poffer.Feet of the Dog
In the preced. poflerior Foot
In the Extremn. of the anterior Foot a
Inform. under the pofterior Foot
5
Preced. of two in the lower Knee
Subfeq. and South of the fame
South. in the upper Knee
North. in the fame Knee
10
Exceeding bright one in Mouthsirius
South. and preced. in the Breaft
Itn the lower Leg
In the North Ear
15
Preced. of the Contig. in the Breafd
Preced. of two in the Shoulder
South. of the Contig. in the Breaft
In the Head
Third of thofe following in Breaft 5
Z0
Longitude.
0   1  it
27 52
±2  7
3 6
X 5±
4 Iz
6 20
7 ±1
7 16
7 z5
7 41
9
9
10
'4
11
12
13
I;
13
49
59
58
3
52.
51
8
39
54
±5
48
4I
57
38
50
13
53
55 5'
50 34
z±6 56
44 2.9
34 59
Latitude.
57
59
5 3
4'
56
46
46
41
4z±
41
39
37
43
55
34
42
46
43
36
4z
, Ft
24 15
14 ±0
±4 57
17 47
44 8
36
46
±1
Is
3 ±
I9
5 z
I 1
44
54
48
4'
45
17
36
23
±s
±4
8
38
'1
z5
34
49
5±
18
50
40
0
2Q
2 .
13
S
7
5
I
I
4
S
6
IS
7
4
6
Rames and Situatien of
the Stars.
C A N
South in the Neck
Bright one underBelly,betw.Thighs
North. of two in the Neck
Subfeq. of two in the Shoulder
Z5
Bright one in theMiddle of the Body
30
Bright one in the Tail
X  Longitude.
3
03 a   I F
S IZ 3z 8
16 ±4 46
17 I s1
Is 17 41
16 41 A5
19  3
20 I2
20 59
21 18
Z1 56
30
±6
5±
34
10
z±  3  I5
$ Z5 1± 16
Latitude.
0   #  ,i
39 39 32
51 23 57
50 16 o
38 1 50
46 10 13
48
47
48
48
46
± 9
5 3
2±z
3 6
2 5
437
49
38
51
37
46 38 30
50 38 56
bQ
01
4
.3
4
3
5 4
D 3
6*
S
6
S
CANIS MINOR, CanicUlus, or the Little Dog, in Afiro-
nomy, a Confrellation of the Southern Hemifphere; call'd
by the Greeks, Procyon. See CONSTELL MIONp
The Stars in the Conflellation Canis Minor, in Ptolomy's
Catalogue are 2 ; in that of 7sycho ZBrahe 5; in the BAri-
tannic Catalogue 15. Their Order, Names, Places, Lon-
gitude, Latitude, Magnitude, C)c. are as follows.
Stars in the Conf ellation CANIS MINOR.
Names and Situation of
the Stars.
In the Head
North in the Neck
South in the Neck
Under thefe as in the Shoulder
Informis, over the Neck
North. againft preced. poiler. Foot
Middle
South
In the Thigh,  Procyon.
10
Informis, towards the Tail of @
In the hind Leg
Preced. in the A of Inf?
follows. this to the sou.5 North
I5
Latter in the faid A
0    I I
Si 16 48 34
17 19 58
17 52 5±
I18  I z4
S8 18 I4
17
ZO
zo
zo
±2
2z
± 5
z6
±8
28
56
10
14
±8
30
II
19
57
39
so
3'
40
7
33
5
47
3 0
1±z
I
Z7 56 5y
f 49 2 2
II- - )5:, 2)
Latitude.
0      ,,
l0 16 6i
I 53 42
13 31 30
1± 51 5!
14 49 14
9 45 18
,9 7 S8
i8 IS 5'
18   6 zz
1557 55
10
I8
I8
23
z I
17 47 5I
17
5 3
6
47
57
0
10
56
56
rs,
6
6
6
6
6
7
6
i 2
6 S
65
S
6
S
S
CANKER, is a Speck made by a fharp Humour, which
gnaws the Flelh almoff like a Cauflic; very common to
Children, in their Mouth especially. It is alfo a Difeafe
incident to Trees ; proceeding chiefly from the Nature of
the Soil. See DISEASES of Plants.
CANNON, in War, a Piece of Artillery; or a Military
Machine for throwing Iron, Lead, or Stone Bullets, by
force of Gun-pouder, to a Place diredlly oppofite to the
Axis of the Cylinder, whereof it confifts. See GUN, and
ORDNANCE.
The Parts and Proportions of a Cannon about It Foot
long, are, its Barrel, or Cavity, 9 Foot ; its Fulcrum, or
Support, 14; and its Axis 7 ; the Bore, or Diameter of
the Mouth 6 Inches, and two Lines the play of the Ball:
The Diameter of the Ball therefore 6 Inches; and its
Weight 33 Pounds -3. The Metal thick about the Mouth,
z Inches; and at the Breech 6. It weighs about 56oo
Pounds: Its Charge is from I8 to 2o Pounds. It carries,
Point-blank, 6oo Paces; and loads ten times in an Hour,
fometimes fifteen; in a Day I  z. Its Bed i5 Foot broad,
and 2o long, for the Rebound. It requires zo Horfes to
draw it.
For a Battering-qPiecc, whofe Ball is 36 Pounds, there
muff be two Cannoneers, three Chargers, and 30 Pioneers.
Cannons are diilinguilh'd from  the Diameters of the
Balls they carry; but this Diflindlion is different in different
Nations. The Proportion of their Length to their Diame-
ter, depends rather on Experience, than any Reafoning a
priori; and has been accordingly various, in various Times
and Places: The Rule is, that the Gun be of fuch a Length,
as that the whole Charge of Pouder be on Fire e'er the Ball
quit the Piece. If it be made too long, the Quantity of Air to
be driven out before the Ball, will give too much Refiflance to
the Impulfe i and that Impulfe ceafing, the Fridion of the
Ball againfi the Surface of the Piece, will take off ome of its
Motion. Formerly, Cannons were made much longer than
at prefent i till fome made by chance z ' Foot fhorter than
ordinary, taught 'em  that the Ball moves with a greater
Impetus through a lefs Space than a larger. This Gujiavus
K. of Sweden prov'd by Experience in i624: An Iron
Ball, 48 Pounds Weight, being found to go farther from a
new lhort Cannon, than another Ball of 96 Pounds out of
an old, longer Piece; whereas, in other refpefs, 'tis certain
the larger the Bore and Ball, the greater the Range.
The
C A N
v)1 T - -:-A
-     I I 7 .
I T    I ..
_
., ,


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