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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

C - capillary,   pp. 137-152 PDF (20.2 MB)


Page 144

( '44 )
Strokes againfi the Sides of the Arieiies; by which means,
'an increas'd Velocity of Blood Increafes the Heat: and
onfiequently does its Heit depend upon its Circulation.
From hence it appears, that it the fame Difiances from the
Heart, the Heat of equal Quantities of Blood will be as
their Velocities . and; that in the fame Velocities of Blood,
the Heat will be reciprocally as the Difiances from the
Heart. For fince; in homogeneal and fimple Bodies, no-
thing elfe is req uir'd to disengage the Particles exciting
Heat, but a Ni fus and Attrition of Parts, produc'd by the
Force of the Heart; to which is always proportional the
Velocity of the Blood; and the Re-affion, or Refiflance
of the Arteries and the antecedent Blood; it follows, that
if the Refifnance or Re-affion is not alter'd, which it will
not be at the fame diflance from the Heart; then the Heat
of the Blood will not be alter'd, unlefs by an Alteration of
the Impetus, or Velocity imprefs'd upon the Blood from
the Heart : That is, as Effeds are proportional to their
Caufes, the Heat of the Blood, at the fame Diflances from
the Heart, will be proportional to its Velocity. In the
fame manner it appears, that if the Velocities imprefs'd by
the Heart be equal, there can be no change in the Heat
of the Blood, but from a diverfify'd Refiftance, or Re-ac-
tion of the Arteries and antecedent Blood. But the Refif-
tance of the preceding Blood is proportional to its Quan-
tity ; and its Quantity is reciprocally proportional to the
Ditance from the Heart ; (for the nearer the Blood is to the
Heart, Xi, much the greater will be its Quantity between
any given Place and the Extremity of the Artery.) And
therefore the Refiflance of the Arteries will alfo be fo much
the greater, by how much nearer they are to the Heart:
For in this cafe, the Refiflance is proportional to the Velo-
city ; and the Velocity of the Blood is greatefl at the leaft
Diflances from the Heart. Hence the Heat of the Blood
may be confider'd as a Redangle, under the Velocity and
the Diflance: that is, if in two Perfons the Velocity be as
three, and the Diffances wherein we would determine the
Hear, be as much more in one as in another; that is,
as two to one ; the Heat of one will be fix, and the other
three: that is, the Heat of the firfi will be double that of
the fecond. If the Diflance of the firfl be as two, and
the Velocity as four; but the Diflance of the fecond as
three, and the Velocity as one5 the Heat of the firfi will
be as eight, and of the fecond as three: and fo the Heat
of the 6flr, will be more than double the Heat of the fe-
cond.
CALIPPIC PERIOD, in Chronology, a Series of 76
Years, returning perpetually round ; which elapfed, the
Middle of the New and Full Moons, as its Inventor Calip-
pus, an Athenian, imagin'd, return'd to the fame Day
of the Solar Year. Meton, too Years before, had inven-
ted the Period or Cycle of I9 Years; (fee METONIC CY-
CLE.) affuning the QUantity of the Solar Year, 365 d. 6 b.
i8' 56" 50' 31 34 ; and the Lunar Month 29d. 12.h. 45'.
47" %6' 484 30 . But Calipus confidering that the Meto-
vic Quantity of the Solar Year was not exaS, multiply'd
Meton s Period by 4, and thence arofe a Period of 76 Years,
call'd the Calippic. The Calippic Period therefore contains
2 7759 Days: And fince the Lunar Cycle contains 235 Lu-
nations, and th eIalippic Period is quadruple of this, it
contains 94o Luntions. See PERIOD.
It is demonstrated, however, that the Calipic Period
it felf is not accurate; that it does not bring the New and
Full Moons precifely to their Places, but brings 'em too
late by a whole Day in 5 5 3 Years.
CALIPH, or CALYPH, orKALIPH, the firfiEcclefiafli-
cal Dignity among the Saracens: or, as d'Herbelot defines it,
the Name of a Sovereign Dignity among the Maorometans,
vefled with abfolute Power over every thing, relating both to
Religion and Policy. The Word is Arabic, and fignifies Suc-
ceflor, or Heir: And, in ef11e&, Abubeker, the firfi Caliph, was
Mahomet's Succefor r; whofe SuccefTors, again, altum'd the
Title of Caliphs of Syria. In a little time, however, there
arofe feveral other Calipbs, who ufurp'd the Supreme Power
in Perfia, Egypt, and Africa. P ifafire, who reign'd in 958,
was the lafi Caliph of Syria; after whom, the Turks be-
coming Maflers thereof, the Caliph funk into Sovereign
Pontiff And the fame happen'd in Egypt, where the
Calih has only left the Title of Grand Prieft of Maho-
met. Vatler obferves, that they call'd themselves Vicars
of God; and that the Mahometan Sultans and Kings fell
down before 'em, and kifs'd their Feet: For which Rea-
fon, V. de ZReauvais, calls 'em their Popes. The Caliph
of Bagdad, tho otherwise little more than a Name, fill re-
tains the antient Right of adopting and confirming the
Kings of Arabia and Syria.  Nicod obferves, that the Go-
vernors of airo had formerly the Title of Caliph. There
were alfo CaliEbs of Carvan, in runis ; and ofSpain who
alfo bore the Title of King.                i
The Word comes from the Arabic, lihalapha, which
fignifies not only to Aicceed, but alfo to be in the Place of
another; not only as Heir, but as Vifar. In which Senfe,
CAL
BpeJnlui oi,?ves, it is, that the Emperors and Sovereigs
Pontifif *ere call'd Calipbs, as being God's Vicars and
Lieutehants: contrary to the more popular Opinion, that
they take the Name Calilh, as being Mahoret's Succeffort.
CALIX, CHALICE, or CALICE, the Cup, or Vee
us'd td adminifler the Wine in, in the Euchard*; and, by
the Romanifts, in the Mafa. Bede affirms, that the Ch-
lice, us'd by Jefus Chrift at the Supper, had two handle;,
and held juft half a Pint; *which tb e Aftients imitated
In the primitive Times the Chalices were of Wood: Pope
Zephyrtne firfi appointed 'em to be df Silver and Gold.
Others fay> qrban I. and Leo IV. forbad Tin and Gla1fi-
as did likewife the Council of Calcub in Enland . Borne
Lindanus; arid Beatus Rhenanus, who had feet fome od
the antient Chalices in Germany, 6bferve, that they had a
Pipe, or Tube; fitted artfully to 'em, thro which the Pe6:
pie fuck'd, inflead of drinking. The Word comes front
the Greek J
CALIX, in Botany, is apply'd to a Flower, whofe Body,
or even a Part of it, is form'd in manner of a Cup or Chalice i
as the Cup or Body of a Tulip, &)c.
CALIX is more particularly us'd for that outward green-
ilh Cover which encompaffes and defends the Foliage, or
Leaves of a Flower. See FLOWER. The Calix is lomec-
times of one entire Piece; as in Pinks, &c. and in fome
broke into feveral, as in Rofes, T.c. The Colix is alfa
call'd Periantbium. See PERIANTHIUM.
Saffron has no Calix; its Flower comes out of the Earth
before its Leaves. See SAFFRON.
CALIXTINS, a Name given to thofe among the Lu-
therans, who follow the Sentiments of George Calixtus, a
celebrated Divine, who oppos'd the Opinions of St. A4ugtif-
tin, on Predeftination, Grace, and Free Will: So that the
Calixtins are effeem'd a kind of Semi-Pelagians. Calixtuts
maintain'd, that there is in all Men a certain Power of Un-
derflanding and Willing; with Natural Knowledge fuffici-
ent: And that a good ufe being made of thefe, God will
give us all the Means neceffary to arrive at the Perfec-
tion to which Revelation directs'em.
CALIXTINS, is alfo a Term, apply'd by the Romanifis
to fuch as communicate in both Kinds; as the People of
fBohemia, &c. tho, in other Refpe&s, of the fame Faith
with themselves: Thefe they don't make Hereticks, but
only Schifmaticks: The Word is deriv'd from Calix, Cup.
CALKITlG, or CAUKING of a Ship, implies the
driving in Oakam, or fomewhat of that kind into the
Seams, or Commiffures of the Planks, to prevent the Ship's
leaking.
CALL, (in Hunting) is a Lefton blown upon the Horn,
to comfort the Hounds. Amongfi Fowlers, Calls are arti-
ficial Pipes, made to catch feveral forts of Birds, by imita-.
ting their Notes.
CALLENDER, or CALANDER, a Machine us'd in the
Manufawures, for preLing certain Cloths, Stuffs of Silk or
Woollen, and even Linens; and to make 'em fmooth, even
and gloffy: 'Tis alfo us'd for watering, or giving the
Waves to Tabbies and Mohairs. It confifis of two large
wooden Rollers, round which the Pieces of Stuff are
wound: thefe are put between two large clofe-polifh'd
Planks of Wood; the lower ferving as a fix d iBafe; and the
upper moveable, by means of a Skrew like that of a
Crane; with a Rope, fatlen'd to a Spindle which majkes
its Axis: This upper Part is of a prodigious Weight, fogy4
times 50 or 6o thoufand Pound. 'Tis this Weight that
gives the Polifh, and that makes the Wave on  e  tuA
about the Rollers, by means of a fhallow Indeture or Ep-
graving cut in it. The Rollers are taken of, and put on
again, by inclining the Machine. The Word comes from
the Latin Cylindrus; in regard the whole Effe& of the
Machine dependson a Cylinder. Borel, indeed, derivesthe
Name of it from that of a little Bird, of the Swallow Kind;
in regard of the Agreement between the Feathers of the
Bird, and the Impreflion of the Machine.
CALLIGRAPHUS, was antiently a Copif or Scrivener,
who traiifcrib'd fair, and at length what the Notaries had
taken down in Notes, or Minutes; which comes pretty
near to what we call Ingro/ing. The Minutes of Acs,&c.-
were always taken in a kind of Cypher, or Short-Hand -;
fuch as the Notes of Viro in Gruter: by which means
the Notaries, as the Latins call'd 'em, or the :ptn-t7q600
and T&X6Protoot, as the Greeks calI'd 'em, were inabled to
keep pace with a Speaker, or Perfon who difated. Thefe,
Notes being under ood by few, were copy'd over fair, and
at length by Perfons who had a good Hand, for fale, kc.
and thefe were call'd Calligraphi,; a Name frequently met
with in the Primitive Writers. It comes from the Greek
&dAm, beaTuty, and yejo, I write; q. d. 4f xJAAor Dest,
swho writes for Beauty or Ornamentfake.
CALLIFER, or rather CALIBRE, the Aperture of a
Piece of Artillery, or any other Fire-Arm i or the Diame-
ter of the Mouth of a Cannon, &.i'c. or of the Ball it car-
ries. Eence,
CALLIPERS,
C A L
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