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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

C - capillary,   pp. 137-152 PDF (20.2 MB)


Page 143


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Pafchal; yet not fo accounted by the Gregorians. On
the other hand, the Gregorians account the Full Moon of the
azd of March, the Pafchal ; which yet, falling before the
.Equinox, is not Pafchal. In the firfi Cafe therefore, Eafter
is celebrated in an Irregular Month ; in the latter, there
are two Eaflers in the fame Ecclefiaffical Year. In like
manner, the Cyclical Computation is founded on mean Full
Moons; which yet may precede or follow the true ones by
fome Hours. TYhe Pafchal Full Moon may,'alfo, fall on Sa-
turday, which is yet referr'd by the Cycle to Sunday:
Whence, in the firff Cafe, Eafter is celebrated eight Days
later than it Should be; in the other it is celebrated on the
very Day of the Full Moon, with the y7ews and g9jiarta-
deciman Hereticks ; contrary to the Decree of the Council
of Nice. Scaliger, and Calviflus, fhew other Faults in the
-Gregorian Calendar; arifing from the Negligence and In-
|advertency of the Authors. This Calendar is adher'd to by
the Romanifts, throughout Europe, &c. and us'd wherever
.the Roman Breviary is us'd. The Proteffant States ofGer-
,;many and Holland have likewife come into it. See Reform-
ed CALENDAR.
Reformed, or Correaed CALENDAR; that which fetting
afide all Apparatus of Golden Numbers, Epafls, and Do-
minical Letters, determines the Equinox, with the Pafchal
Full Moon, and the Moveable Feafts depending thereon, by
Afironomical Computation, according to the Rudoiphine
Tables.
ThisCalendar was introduc'd among the Proteflant States
of Germany, in the Year i700 ; when it Days were at
once thrown out of the Month of February : So that in
1700, February had but i8 Days: By this means, the Cor-
retled Stile agrees with the Gregorian. This Alteration in
the Form of the Year they admitted for a Time; in ex-
pecation that the real Quantity of the Tropical Year be-
ing at length more accurately determin'd by Obfervation,
the RomaniJfs wou'd agree with 'em, on fome more conveni-
ent Intercalation.
ConJlrutlion of a CALENDAR, or Almanack.
i. Compute the Sun's and Moon's place for each Day of the
'Year; or take 'em from Ephemerides. See SUN, and MOON.
2. Find the Dorninical Letter, and by means thereof, difiri-
bute the Calendar into Weeks. See DOMINICAL LETTER.
3. Compute the Time of Eafler, and thence fix the other
Moveable Feaffs. See EASTER. 4. Add the Immoveable
Feafis, with the Names of the Martyrs. 5. To every Day
11 1 EL Cw | he_ Err_ 1s nab  *1 nAL_   1s fl.___
ii the bun s and Jvioon-s rlace, with the Riting and Set-
ng of each Luminary; the Length of Day and Night;
ie Crepufcula, and the Afpecds of the Planets. 6. Add,
i the proper Places, the chief Phafes of the Moon. See
HASES. The Sun's Entrance into the Cardinal Points;
e. the Solflices and Equinoxes: together with the Rifing
nd the Setting, efpecially Heliacal, of the Planets and
iief Fix'd Stars. Means for each whereof, will be found
ider the proper Heads in this Diaionary.
The Duration of the Crepufcula, or the End of the Even-
ng, or Beginning of the Morning Twilight; together with
he Sun's Rifing and Setting, and the Length of Days, may
transferr'd from the Calendars of one Year, into thofe of
iother: the Differences in the feveral Years being too
nall to be of any Confideration in Civil Life.
IHence it appears, that the Conflruction of a Calendar
as nothing in it of Myflery or Difficulty; if Tables of the
eavenly Motions be but at hand.
The Gelalean CALENDAR, is a Correalion of the Per-
in Calendar, made by Order of Sultan Gelaleddan, in the
57th Year of the Hegyra; of Chrift io89.
The Name Calendar is here given, from the Word Ca-
anda, wrote antiently in large Charaaers at the Head of
ich Month.
CALENDAR, is alfo us'd for the Catalogue, or Fafti,
ktiently kept in each Church, of the Saints ; both uni-
erfal, and tfiofe particularly honour'd in each Church; with
heir Bilhops, Martyrs, .
There are flill fome of thefe Calendars extant; particu-
rly a very antient one of the Church of Rome, made
out the middle of the IVth Century: comprehending al-
the Feflivals both of the Heathens and Chriflians, which
-re then very few in number. F.Mabillon has alfo printed
e Calendar of the Church of Carthage; made about the
rar 483. The Calendar of the Church of Ethiopia; and
at of the Cophte, publifh'd by Ludolphus, feem to have
.tn made after the Year 76o. The Calendar of the Sy-
ins, printed by Genebrard, is very imperfe&: That of
e Mufcovites, publifh'd by F. fPapebroch, in moft refpe&s
rees with that of the Greeks, publifh'd by Genebrard.
he Calendar publilh'd by Dom. d',4cherry, under the
itle of flhe Solar Year, is no more than the Calendar of
e Church of Arras. The Calendar publili'd in i687, at
usburg, by Beckivs, is apparently that of the antient
lurch of A4usburg, or rather Strasbourg, wrote towards
e Clofe of the ioth Century. The Mofarabique Calen-
r, frill ts'd in the five Churches of Toledo ; theAmbroflas
CA L
of Milan; and thofe of England, before the Reformation;
have nothing in 'em but what is found in thofe of the othet
Teftern Churches i viz.. the Saints honour'd throughout,
and thofe peculiar to the Church where they are us'd.
Thefe antient Calendars are not to be confounded with
the antient Martyrologies: For each Church had its pecu-
liar Calendar; whereas the Martyrologies regarded the
whole Church in general: containing the Martyrs and Con-
feffors of all the Churches. From all the feveral Calendars
was form'd one Martyrology: fo that Martyrologies are po-
flerior to Calendars. See MARTYROLOGY.
CALENDS, CALENDE, in the Roman Chronology,
the firfl Day of each Month. See MONTH. The Calends
were reckon'd backwards, or in a retrograde Order: Thus,
v. g. the firfi of May being the Calends of May, the laft,
or 3oth of April, was the Pridie Calendarum, or fecond of
the Calends of May; the a9th of April, the third of the
Calends, or before the Calends: and fo back to the I3th,
where the Ides commence; which are, likewife, number'd
invertedly to the fifth, where the Nones begin ; which are
number'd after the fame manner to the firef Day of the
Month, which is the Calends of April. See NONES, and
IDES. The Rules of Computation by Calends, are inclu-
ded in the following Verfes.
Prima Dies Menfzs cujufque eft difla Calenda:
Sex Majus Nonas, 03ober, 7ulius, g Mars;
Ruatuor at reliqui : !Dabit Idus quilibet Odo.
Inde Dies reliquos omnes dic ewfe Calendas ;
klas retro numerans dices a Menfe fequente.
To find the Day of the Calends we are in, fee how many
Days there are yet remaining of the Month, and to that
Number add two : For Example; fuppofe it the zcd of
April i 'tis then the ioth of the Calends of May.  For
April contains 30 Days; and Z2 taken from 30, there re-
mains 8 ; to which two being added, the Sum is IO.
The Word comes from the Latin Calare, to call, proclaim;
becaufe on the Day of the Calends, or firfiof the Month, the
PontifF, with a loud Voice, proclaimed the Day whereon tl e
Nones were to be; whether on the fifth or feventh Day of the
Month: Or rather, becaufe originally the inferior Pontiff had
it in charge to watch when the New Moon Should firfi ap-
pear, in order to declare it to the People; which they call'd
Calare, apparently from the Greek x´am, voco. The Ca-
lends, according to Varro, were dedicated to Yuno. On
the Calends of March, the Romans us'd to take their Lea-
fes, Ec. in regard the Year, as fix'd by Romulus, corn-
menc'd on that Day. The Calends of March was a fatal
Day to Debtors, becaufe then their Leafes expir'd; which
occafion'd Horace to call them Trifles.
The Roman Writers themfelves are at a lofs for the
Reafon of this abfurd and whimfical manner of computing
the Days of the Month  yet is it Fill kept up in the Ro-
man Chancery; and by fome Authors, out of a vain Af-
feaation of Learning, preferr'd to the common, more na-
tural, and eafy manner. See YEAR, DAY, NONES, IDES.
CALENTURE, is an inflammatory Fever, frequent at
Sea, attended with a Delirium; wherein the Patients ima-
gine the Sea to be green Fields; and, if not prevented,
will leap over-board: which way they are frequently lofl.
CALIDUCTS, a kind of Pipes, or Canals, difpos'd along
the Walls of Houfes and Apartments ; us'd by the Anti-
ents for the Conveyance of Heat to feveral remote Parts
of the Houfe, from one common Furnace. See STOVE,
FIRE, &,c.
CALIDUM Innatum, or Innate Heat; a Term the Anti-
ents had many vague Notions about: but Geometrical Rea-
foning has taught us to affix a more diflind Idea hereto:
For 'tis hence we know, that this innate Heat is no more
than the Attrition of the Parts of the Blood; occafion'd
by its circulatory Motion, efpecially in the Arteries; where-
in, being propell'd from a circular Bafe, towards the Apex
of an hollow Cone, with a Force begun in the Heart, it
meets with a double Refiflance; viz. againit the Sides of
the Arteries, and againf+ the preceding Blood. For where-
as the Blood contains in it Parts that are fitted to excite
Heat, whenever they can get at liberty ; that is, if the
Parts inclofing them can be got afunder : and whereas the
Parts inclofing fuch Corpufcles cannot be got afunder, un-
lefi by fome Nifus of the Parts of Blood with one another,
whereby the Attrition and Abrafion of the cohering Par-
ticles is produc'd; it follows, that the Heat will be fo much
the greater, by how much fuch a Nifus, and Attrition of
the Parts among one another is increas'd. And with the
fame Refifances, (that is, the Sedions of the Arteries,
and the Quantity of Blood remaining the fame) and an
increas'd Force of the Heart, and circular Motion of the
Blood, the Nifus and Attrition of the Parts of Blood a-
mongaf one another, mull neceffarily be increas'd; both by
the preceding Blood being firuck harder upon, by the Pro-
trufion of a fucceeding Blood, coming on with an increas'd
Velocity; and the occafioning thereby alfo more frequent
Strokes
C A L
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