University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
Link to University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
Link to University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
History of Science and Technology

Page View

Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Burnishing - bylaws,   pp. 135-137 PDF (3.1 MB)

C - capillary,   pp. 137-152 PDF (20.2 MB)

Page 137

dents its flattening, and preferves its Bofie of Defign. br-
dinaril, indeed, they content themfelves to cover the na-
ked Mould with the Shell; and in this Cafe, for the faf-
tening, pafs a Thread or Gut acrofs thro the middle of the
BUTTREßS,a kind of Butment built archvife; or a Mafs
of Stone or Brick, ferving to prop or Support the Sides of
a Building, Wall, Uec. on the Outfide, where it is either
very high, or has any confiderable Load to fuilain on the
other fide, as a Bank of Earth, Uje. The Theory and
Rules of 2'uttre.fes, are one of the NDeefderata in Archi-
BUTTRESS, or BUTTRICE, is likewife a Tool, that Far-
riers make ufe of to pierce the Sole of an Horfe's Foot,
C<         THE third Letter of the Alphabet; form'd,
according to Scaliger, from the K of the
Greeks, by retrenching the Stern or right
' Line: Others derive it from the 3 Caph
of the Hebrews, which has, in efma, the
fame Form; allowing only for this, that the Hebrews,
reading backwards, and the Latins, &c. forwards, each have
turn'd the Letter their own way. However, the c not be-
ing the fame as to Sound with the Hebrew Caph; and it
being certain the Romans did not borrow their Letters im-
mediately from the Hebrews, or other Orientals, but from
the Greeks ; the Derivation from the Greek K is the more
probable. F. Montfaucon, in his Pakeographia, gives us
rome Forms of the Greek K, which come very tear that
of our C; this, for Inflance, t : And Suidas calls the C,
the Roman Kappa. All Grammarians agree, that the Ro-
mans proniounc'd q like our c, and c like our k. F. Ma-
billon adds, that Charles the Great was the firft who wrote
his Name with a C; whereas, all his Predeceffors of the
fame Name wrote it with a K: The fame Difference is
obferv'd in their Coins.
C was a Numeral Letter among the Romnans, fignifying
an hundred  according to the Verfe,
Non plus quam centum C litera ferter habere.
Some add, that a Dafh over it, made it fignify an hun-
dred thoufand; but it wou'd be hard to find an Inflance
hereof among the Antients. In proper Names, C. was us'd
for Cains; as, C. Gefar, &c. Their Lawyers us'd it fin-
gle for Codice and Con/ule, &c. double, CC, for Con/ulibus.
C was alfo us'd in their Courts, as a Letter of Condemna-
tion, and flood for condemnno; in oppofition to A, which
fignify'd abfdvo. See A.
In Mufick a Capital C denotes the highefi Part in a
thorough BaLs.
us'd in various Senfes, which Authors generally confound.
It is originally Hebrew, nip Kabbalah; and, properly,
fignifies Y'radition: whence the Verb ',np Kibbel, to re-
rr.,>  -.A;   nr f4nm Father to Son: efteciallv in
- ysoL Js   v              X } In  *-   -   ra } -
'haldee and Rabbinical Hebrew. Hence Gabbala is
arily ufed fbr a Sentiment, Opinion, or Explication of
ture; or a Cufiom or Praffice tranfmitted from Fa-
to Son.
to the Origin of the Cabbala: The 7ews believe, that
gave to Mo/es on Mount Sinai, not only the Law, but
:he Explication of that Law; and that Mo/es, after his
ng down, retiring to his Tent, rehears'd to Aaron both
ne and the other. When he had done, Aaron fland-
in the Right Hand, his Sons, Eleazer and Ithamar,
introduc'd to a fecond Rehearfal: This over, the 70
rs that compos'd the Sanhedrim were admitted; and
the People, as many as pleas'd: To all which, Mo-
gain repeated both the Law and Explanation, as he
,'d'er from God. So that Aaron heard it four times,
Sons thrice, the Elders twice, and the People once.
of the two Things which Mofrs taught 'em, the
s, and the Explanation, only the firft was committed
'riting; which is what we have in Exodus, Leviticus,
Numbers: As to the fecond, or the Explication of
Laws, they were contented to imprefs it well in their
ory, to teach it their Children, t hey, to theirs, Lec.
:e, the firil Part they call limply the Law, or the
ten Law; the fecond, the Oral Law;, or Cabbala.
is the original Notion of the Cabb'ala.
rne Rabbins, however, ptetend their Fathers receiv'd
'abbala from the Prophets, who receiv'd it from the
Is. R. Abr. ben! Dior fays ekprefsly, that the Angel
ei was Adtam's Mafler, atid taught him the Cabbala i
which is overgrown ;-tob pare the Hoof; to fit the Shbe
and to cut of the Skirts of the faid Sloe, -that overcai
the Shoe.
BY-LAWS, or BILAWS, Orders made in Court-Ldetsj
Court-Barons, Wc. by common Confent, for the Good of
thofe whoprefcribe them; and which extend further thab the
Publick Law binds. In Scotland, they are call'd Laws of
!Burla~w, or .Birlaww; which are made and determin'd by
Confent of Neighbours, eleded by common Confent in
Z'urlaw-Courts i wherein Cognizance is taken of Com-
plaints 'twixt Neighbour and Neighbour. The Men thus
chofen are Judges br Aibitratori, and call'd !B'ulaw-
that Zaphiel was Shem's Mafler; 'f-edekiel, Abraham's;
Raphael, Ifaac's; Peliel, 7acob's ; Gabriel, 7ofeph's;
Meratron, Mofes's; Malathiel, Elias's, &c.
Among thefe Explications of the Law, which, in reality,
are little elfe but the feveral Interpretations and Decifions
of the Rabbins on the Laws of Mo/es, fome are Myflical;
confifling of odd abfirufe Significations given to a Word, or
even to the Letters whereof it is compos'd  whence, by
diflerent Combinations, they draw Meanings from Scrip-
ture, very different from thofe it feems naturally to im-
port. The Art of interpreting Scripture, after this man-
ner, is call'd more particularly Cabiala: And 'tis in this
lail Senfe the Word is more ordinarily us'd among us.
This Cabbala, call'd alfo Artificial Cabbala, (to diflirin-
guifh it from the firfl Kind, or fimple Tradition) is diflin-
gfilh'd into three Sorts: The firfi, call'd Gematria, confiflg
in the taking Letters as Figures, or Arithmetical Num-
bers, and in explaining each Word by the Arithmetical Va-
lue of the Letters whereof it is compos'd; which is done
various ways. See GEMAkERIA.
The fecond is call'd Notaricon; and confifIs either in
the taking each Letter of a Word for an entire Diafion i
v. g. Muw y: the firfi Word of Genef/s, for rjtnll COn
=lz3V vV ppj~n : Or in making one entire Diction
out of the Initial Letters of many; as out of thefe,
tl1n  ARI t)III y' 1t = y: 'houi art great in Eternity,
Lord; by only taking the Initial Letters, they form the
CabbaliJfic Name of God, kOX Agla, mention'd by Gala-
tine. See NOrARICON.
The third kind, call'd ITemura, q. d. changing, confifls
in the changing and tranfpofing the Letters of a Word ;
which is done various Ways,: i. By feparating 'em; and
thus, v. g. from Brefchit, i. e. in Principio, they make
Rres-chit, i. e. pofpuit Fundamentum; jufl as in playing
with Words, we fomertimes feparate Sum-mus, Ter-mninus,
Sus-tinea-mus. 2. By tranfpofing the Letters, and ranging
'em in a different manner: thus, from the fame Word Btre/-
chit, they make another Signification, Ia in T1bifri; and
becaufe this is taken from the firfi Word in the Hiftory of
the Creation of the World, they thence conclude, the
World was created on the firlt Days of the Month of 1'if-
ri. 3. By taking one Letter for another, with refped to
the different Relations they acquire, in confidering the Al-
phabet different Ways: thus, by dividing the Hebrew Alpha-
bet of 22 Letters, into two Parts, and taking the firf of
either of thefe for the firft of the other, the lecond for the
fecond, Ec. by this means, of 2fabeel, an unknown Name
mention'd in I/aiab, they fbrm Remla, the Name of a King
of Ifrael. Another manner of changing the Letters, is by
taking the Alphabet two ways, firft in the common way,
then backwards, and changing mutually the two firfl Let-
ters, then the two fecond, Lc. By this means, of tji
the  Arts of thofe who rife againft me, they make =-trj
the Chaldeans i and thence conclude, that thofe God here
fpake of are, Ikaldeans.  Thefe two laft Kinds are alf6
call'd tzinv  4Afciation, Combination.
The Cabbala hitherto fpoke of, may be call'd Specula-
tive Cabbala; in oppofition to the followingis which may
be call'd Pradlical Cabbala.
CABBALA, is alfo taen for the Ufej or rather Abufe,
which Magicians make of fome Paffages of Scripture. All
the Words, Terms, Magic Figuresr Numbers, Letters,
Charms,i &c. ufed in Maic, asalfo in the Hermentical Science,
are compriz'd under to&Species of Cabbala. But 'tis only
the Chriflians that call it by this Name, on account of the
Refemblance this Art bears to the Explications of th6
7ewilh Cabbala: For the 7ews never ufe the Word £.ab,;
lrr                     1

Go up to Top of Page