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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

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Page 133

King's Council; if there appear any Aeafons for not exe-
cuting 'em, notice thereof is given to the Pope by a Suppli-
cation; and the Bull, by this means, remains without Ef-
fe& : And the like Method of proceeding with the Court
of Rome, is obferv'd by the reff of the Courts of Europe.
To fulminate Bulls, is to make the Publication thereof,
by one of the three CommifTaries to whom they are direc-
ted; whether he be Bilhop or Official. This Publication
is fometimes oppos'd ; but when it is, the Fault is not
charg'd on the Pope who iffu'd it, but an Appeal is brought
to him againfi the Perfon who is fuppos d to make it:
Thus the Fault is laid, where 'tis known not to be juil, to
evade affronting the Pontiff
The Bull in Cena Somini, is a Bull read every Year,
on Maunday-I', in the Pope's Prefence; containing
various Excommunications and Execrations, againfi Here-
ticks, thofe who difobey the See, who difiurb or oppofe the
Exercife of Ecclefiaflical Jurifdilaion, lc.
After the Death of a Pope, no Bulls are difpatch'd du-
ring the Vacancy of the See: To prevent any Abufes there-
fore, as foon as the Pope is dead, the Vice-Chancellor of
the Roman Church takes the Seal of the Bulls; and, in
the Prefence of feveral Perfons, orders the Name of the
deceas'd Pope to be eras'd; and covers the other Side, on
which are the Faces of St. Peter and Paul, with a Linen
Cloth; fealing it up with his own Seal, and giving it thus
cover'd to the Chamberlain, to be preferv'd, fo as no Bulls
may be feal'd with it in the mean time.
The Word Bull, is deriv'd from bullare, to feal Letters;
or from bulla, a Drop or Bubble: Others derive it from
the Greek 9WAs, Council; 5Pezron from the Celtic Buil,
and bil, Bubble.
Golden BULL, is an Ordonnance, or Statute, made by the
Emperor Charles IV. in I 3 56. faid to have been drawn up
by that celebrated Lawyer Bartoli: This is the Funda-
mental Law of the Empire. Till this time, the Form and
Ceremony of the Elefion of an Emperor, were dubious
and undetermin'd; and the Number of Eleaows not fi;'d.
This folemn Edi& regulated the Funalions, Rights, Pri-
vileges, and Preeminences of the Eleaors. The Original,
which is in Latin, on Vellom, is kept at Frankfort. On
the Backfide are feveral Knots of black and yellow Silk;
to which hangs a Seal of Gold.
'Tis call'd the Golden Bull, becaufe the Emperors of
the Eafi utifd, antiently, to feal their Edias with a Golden
Seal, call'd Bulla. This Ordonnance, containing 30 Arti-
cles, was approv'd of by all the Princes of the Empire, and
remains 2ill in force. The Eleffion of the Emperor was
to be in the Hands of feven Eleftors - three of 'em Eccle-
fiaflicks, viz. the Archbilhops of Mentz, 7reves, and Co-
logne; and four Seculars, viz. the King of Bohemia, Prince
Palatine, Duke of Saxoay, and Marquis of Brandenburg.
Golden Bulls were in ufe among the Eafltern Emperors
for a confiderable Time; Leaden ones being confin'd to
Matters of imaller moment. SPelman mentions a Golden
Bull, in a Treaty of Alliance between our Henry VIII.
and Francis I. of France ; and there are other Inflances
in ZDu Cange and _4taferra.
BULLET, an Iron or Leaden Ball, or Shot, wherewith
7ire-Arms are loaded.  uallets are ot various KLinds, viz.
Zed Bullets, made hot in a Forge; intended to fet Fire to
'laces where combuilible Matters are found. Hollow Bul-
lts, or Shells, made Cylindrical, with an Aperture and a
Fufee at one End, which giving Fire to the Infide, when
n the Ground it buris, and has the fame EfTea with a
Aine. Chain Bullets, which confifi-of two Balls, join'd
bya Chain three or four Foot apart. Branch Bullets, two
Balls join'd by a Bar of Iron 5 or 6 Inchesapart. 7'wo-headed
liullets, call'd alfo Angels, two halves of a Bullet join'd by a
Bar, or Chain: Thefe are chiefly us'd at Sea, for cutting of
Cords, Cables, Sails, bec. Some derive the Word fiom, the
Latin Botellus, others from the Greek gAIhf 'i, to throw.
According to Mer-fenne, a Bullet lhot out of a great Gun,
lies 92 Fathom in a Second of Time, which is equal to
89 .Eglilb Feet; and, according to Huygens, would be
y5 Years in paifing from the Earth to the Sun: But accor-
*ing to fome very accurate Experiments of Mr. !Derbam,
t flies, at its firfk Difcharge, 5IO Yards in five half Seconds;
which is a Mile in a little above .x 7 half Seconds: Allowing
therefore theSun's Diflance 8605 I398Enlif Miles,a Bullet
would be 3± Years and a half in its Pafage. See SouND.
BULLION, Gold and. Silver in the Mafs or Billet. It
A alfo the Place where Gold and Silver is brought to be
try'd and exchang'd.
BULWARK, the fame, in the antient Fortification,
with a Baftiton in the Modern; fee BASTION.
BUMICILLI, a Sea of Mahometans in Afriva. Thef
we faid to be great Sorcerers; they fight againfi the De-
vils, as they ay; and frequently run about cover'd with
Blood and BOifes, in a terrible Pright: They fometimes
:ounterfeit a Combat with 'cm at noon Day; .and, in the
Prefene of Numbers of People, for the Space of two or threc
33)                 BUR.
Hours, with Darts, Javelinst Scimiters, Gc. laying defpe-
rately about them, till they fall down on the Ground op-
prefs'd with Blows: After refling a Moment, they recover
their Spirits and walk off. What their Rulc is, is not well
known; but they are faid to be an Order of Religious.
BUNT of a Sail, is the middle Part of it, which is
purposely form'd into a kind of Bag, or Cavity, that the
Saif might receive the more Wind: It is chiefly us'd in
Top-fails; for Courfes are for the moft part cut fquare, or
at leaft with a fmall Allowance, for Btnt or Compafs.
They fay, the Bunt holds much Leewvard Wind, that is,
the Bunt hangs too much to Leeward. The Bunt-lines are
fmall Lines made fail to the Bottom of the Sails, in the
middle Part of the Bolt-Rope, to the Crengle and fo are
reeved thro a fmall Block, feized to the Yard: Their ufe
is to trice up the Bunt of the Sail, for the better furling
it up.
BUOY, at Sea, a piece of Wood or Cork, Sometimes
an empty Cafi well clos'd, fwimming on the Water, and
faflen'd by a Chain or Cord to a large Stone, piece of
broken Cannon, &ic. thrown into the Sea, to mark the
dangerous Places near a Coaft, as Rocks, Sholes, Wrecks
of Veffels, Anchors, Wc. In lieu of thefe Buoys, are fome-
times placed pieces of Wood, in form of Mails, in the con-
fpicuous Places. Sometimes large Trees are planted in a
particular manner; in number, two at the leaft, to be ta-
ken in a right Line, the one hiding the other; fo as the
two may appear to the Eye no more than one.
Buoy is alfo a piece of Wood, or a Barrel, at Sea, faf-
ten'd fo as to float direcly over the Anchor i that the
Men who go in the Boat to weigh the Anchor, may cer-
tainly know where it lies.
BURDEN, the Drone or Bafe in fome Mufical Infiru-
ments, and the Pipe or Part that plays it; as in an Organ,
a Bagpipe, UWc. See DRONE. Hence the Burden of a
Song, tec. is that Part repeated at the End of each Stanza.
The Word comes from the French Bourdon, a Staff; or a
Pipe made in form of a StafF, imitating the grofs mur-
murs of Bees or Drones.  This is what the Antients
call'd, Proflambanomenos.
BURDEN of a Ship, is its Content, or the Number of
Tonns it will carry. To determine the Burden of a Ship,
multiply the Length of the Keel, taken within Board, by
the Breadth of the Ship, within Board, taken from the
Midlhip Beam from Plank to Plank, and the Produ& by
the Depth of 4te Hold, taken fiom the Plank below the
Keelfey, to the under Part of the upper Deck Plank; and
divide the lafd Produ& by 94, and the Quotient is the Con-
tent of the Tonnage requir'd. See SHIP.
BURGAGE, is a Tenure proper to Cities, Boroughs,
and Towns, whereby the Burghers, Citizens, or Townfinen,
hold their Lands or Tenements of the King, or other
Lords, for a certain yearly Rent. Swvinburn fays, it is a
kind of Soccage.
BURGESSES, the Inhabitants of a Borough, or wall'd
Town: tho the Word is alfo apply'd to the Magifirates of
fuch Towns; as the Bailiff and Burgeffes of Leominjfer.
The Word Burgeffes is now ordinarily us'd for the Re-
prefentatives of fuch Borough-Towns in Parliament: Fi-
lius vero Burgenfis, Aitatem habere tune intelligitur cum
diferte fciverit denarios numerare F pannos ulnare, &c.
In other Countries, Burgefs and Citizen are confounded
together, but with us they are diffinguilh'd. See BORoUGH.
BURG-GRAVE, a Judge or Governor in feveral Cities
and Cafiles of Germany: The Purg-gravate is perpetual.
The Word is form'd from Burg, City, and Grave, Judge
or Count.
BURGLARY, fignifies the robbing of an Houfe; but,
in a legal Senfe, is a Felonious entering into another Man's
Dwelling, wherein fome Perfon is, or into a Church in the
Night time; to the end to commit fome Felony, or to
kill fome Perfon, or to Real Something thence, or to do
fome other felonious AM, altho he executes it not. The
fame Offence by Day, we call Houfe-breaking, Wc. It
fhall not have Benefit of Clergy.
BURGMOTE, a Court of a City or Borough; fee MoTtlm.
BURLESQUE, a kind of Poetry, merry, jocular, and
bordering on the Ridicule. The Word, and the Thing too,
feem to be both Modern. F. FavaOr maintains, in his
Book fDe ludicra FDigfionc, thatit was absolutely unknown
to the Antients; againfi the Opinion of others, that one
Raintovinus, in the Time of Ptolomy Lagos, turn'd the fe-
rious Subjeas of Tragedy into Ridicule; which, perhaps,
is a better Plea for the Antiquity of Farce than Burlefque.
The Italians feem to have the juflefi Claim to the Inven-
tion of BurIefque. The firft in this kind was Bernicva; he
was follow'd by Lalli, Caparali, &c. From Italy it pafs'd
into France, and became there fo much the Mode, that in
1649 appear'd a Book under the Title of, The  Palion of
our S&wiour in burlefque Verfe. Thence it came to Eng-
land; but the good Senfe of the Ekli# never adopted or
,own'd it, notwithftanding one or two have ekcell'd in it.
M m                 BURNS

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