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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

Bombard - burning,   pp. 115-134 PDF (20.3 MB)


Page 117


,- ivith Sbears, and in this State laid oh the Stone atnd the Edges  are
ftted on an Irob Stay, or Axis, that paftes the Middle
pared thin on the Side to be apply'd to the Pailboard, with, of their Diameters.
a 1(nife for that puirpofe. It may be eafily imagin'd, that S To apply the
Gold, they glaze thofe Parts of the Lea-
Pone of thefe Preparations, except the lafi are us'd In ther whereon the
Irons are to be apply'd, lightly over with
Morocco, Sheep, or in Vellom lelver, d. wherewith     a Pencil or Sponge;
and, when half dry, layover them piees-
,Bccks are fometimes cover'd; in regard the Water wou'd  of Leaf Gold cut
out near the Size; and on thefe Stamp
fpoil 'cm. The Cover is next fmear'd over with Pafi made the Punchions, or
roll the Cylinders, both the one and the
of Wheat-Flower; then firetch'd over the Pafiboard on the other reasonably
hot, If the Figures be large, and require
Outfide, and doubled over the Edges within-fide: after a great Relievo, as
Arms, 'c. they are beat dbwn with a
having firfl taken off the four Angles, and indented and  Mallet or Hammer.
The Gilding thus finifhled4 they
plaited it at the Headbands. They then cord the Book, or rub off the Superfluous
Gold with a pretty fliff Brufh; lea-
bimd it firmly between two Boards with a kind of Whip- ving nothing cover'd
with Gold, but the Places whereon
cord, to make the Cover flick the fironger to the Pafl- the hot Irons had
left their Impreffions.
boards and the Back; as alfo to fbrm the Bands or Nerves  BOOK-KEEPING. Books
are either kept fingle, as
the more accurately : In this Operation the Workman arms among Retail Dealers;
or doubles as among greAt Mef-
-his Hand with Leather, to enable him to pinch it the har- chants: For the
firfl, a 7ournal or Iay- ook, and a Ledg-
der; and ufes a pair of Pinchers to bring the Thread  er or PoJf-book are
fufficient; for the fecond, there are fib
nearer each Band. The Biook is now fet to dry; and when  veral others requir'd.
All Authors agree, that it was the
dry, uncorded and put in the Prefs between two thicker Italians, particularly
thofe of Venice, Genoa and Florence',
Boards; then bzaten on the Flat with a Hammer; Paper who firfi introduc'd
the Method of keeping Books double,
glu'd on the Paiboards wirhin-fide; and the Cover mar- or in two Parts:-
Hence, among us, 'tis ca~I'd She ialian
bled or fRrinkled, if requir'd, with a Pencil dipp'd in a Method. In this}
there are three Books indifpenfibly necef-
black Colour, and firuck againfl the Finger or a Stick for fary; viz, the
Waft-book, 71ournal, and Ledger: Befides,
the Purpofe, fo as to throw off little Specks and Stains of there are others,
to the Number of thirteens call'd Auxi-
the Colour. Some mark the Covers with Clouds, in Imi- liary Books, ufed as
occafion requires; 'viz. the Ca./h-book,
tation of Marble, by means of Aqua fortis applied thereon. fDebt-book, Book
of Numero's, of Invoices, of Accompts-
The Cover is now glaz'd twice with the White of an E~g  Currant, of Commijions,
Orders, 4dvices, of Acceptan-
beaten; and at ]afl polifh'd with a Polifhing-Iron, pafs d  ces, of Remittances,
of Epences, of Copis of Letters, of
hot over the glaz'd Cover, fee POLSHi1NG. If the  Iook Veffels, and of Wforkmqv.
be requir'd to be Letter'd, they glue a piece of red Morocco  I. The Waft-book,
of Memorandum-book, is the firfl, and
on the Back, between the firft and fecond Band, to receive  moil effential:
In this, all kinds of Matters are, as it were,
the Title in Gold Letters; and Sometimes a fecond be- mix'd and jumbled together;
to be afterwards Separated
tween the next Bands underneath, to receive the No of and transferr'd into
the others: fo that this may be call'd
the Volume. The Binding, properly fo call'd\ is now   the Elements of all
the rell. It may be kept two ways;
conipleat; and there remains nothing but the Gilding Work  the firil by entering
things down fimply as they happen,
on the Back and Cover ; which, as it makes a Part of the  v. g. Bought of
fiuch a one, fold to fuch a one, laid fucl
Bookbinder's Bufinefs among us, (tho with the French, &c. a one, lentfo
much, &c. the fecond by entering, at oncei
it is a diilinit Profcffion) we Ihall here fubjoin.   each Article, Debtor
and Creditor: This lail is efleem'd
Manner of Gilding Books Onl the Backs and Covers.  In the belt; in regard,
forming a kind of little Journal, it
-ordinary bindivg, they gild little elfe but the Backs, and faves the keeping
any other.
the outward Edges of the Cover. On the Backs are gilt    2. Journal-Bookor
Day-book, whereinthe Affairsof each
the Title of thie Book, _)c. with Flowers, Rofes, Knots, Day are enter'd
orderly down, as they happen, from the
Stars, &)c. between the Bands: on the Covers are fome- Wail-book.  Each
Article in this Book to confide of feveni
times added, Compartiments, Arms, )c. All there Or- Parts; viz. the Date,
Debtor, Creditor, Sum, Quantity
naments are made with each its feveral Gilding-Iron, en- and Quality, how
payable, and the Price. By an  rdon-
graven in Relievo; either on the Points of Punchions, as nance of the Year
I673, all Traders in Francef whether by
rhofe of Letters, Rofes, Stars, go or around little Cylin- Wholefale or Retail,
are oblig'd to keep a Journal, con-
ders of Steel, as the Lines, Embroideries, c. The Punchi- taining all their
Affairs; Debts active and paffive, Bills of
ons make their Impreffion by being prefs'd flat down; and  Exchange, d&c.
For want of keeping this, and furrendning
the Cylinders by being roll'd along by an Iron Ruler, by  it up, on a Failure,
they are to be reputed fraudulent Ban1-
means of a double Branch i in the Middle whereof, they  rupts, and fubieded
to the Penalties thereof
Mjdel of an Article in a Journal.
I5th July, 17Z^3
Wine   jr. to Cafh-  L. i6o   -:u- Bught O
Burgundy, at                           L. 10.
3. Ledger, or Great Book ; call'd alfo 'Poft-book, Book of
Extratfs, &c. is a huge Volume, ufually rul'd into fix Co-
lumns: This is the Waft-book iill further digefied ; and is
extraaed immediately from the Journal. In this all the
Accompts difpers'd ip the Journal, are drawn out and flated
in Deitor and Creditor.  To form each Accompt, two
*Pges are requir'd, oppofte to each other; that on the Left
M~del of an Article in Debtor.
,  i'OI'. Anthony Roberts ID".              I ' .  ds.1d4
.My 4.JTh CafipaidbyhisOrderto Wilks iFo.6I90o,0oo0
TIo facilitate the Ufe of the Ledger, there is an Al ha-
bet, to ferve as an Index or Repertory; confifling of 14
Leaves, each cut on the Edge, and mark'd with one of the
.. aj4Letters; wherein, the initial Letters of the Perforns
..hanes with whom you have Accompts, are inferted, with
the Folio of the Ledger, where the Account is flated.
..  The Ca/h-book is the moll important of all the Auxiliary
"pes 5 'tis fo call'd, becaufe it contains, in Debtor and Cre-
Model of an Article in Debt.
.Recd            June L9th, 1708,      1.  s.  d.
P-ecd. of Paul Simon for z Tonn of Wax, fold
the 6th Inflant,
A Purfe of -L. iooo:-:-
Pieces of Eight, L. o8: - : -  1io8   o   o
;  I   1.   s.   d.
f Duval, ready Money, i6 Pi'pes of l  l
-        -~~~ofI i6oj  0
ferving for Debtor, the other for Creditor: Each Article
to confift of five Parts, or Members; the Date, the Perron
whom we credit, or are credited by; the Subjeff, i. e. the
thing credited or indebted for * the Page where it is found,
and the Sum or Amount of the Article. Two Inflances,
the one of an Article of Credit, the other of Debt i will il-
luflrate the Form and Ufe of this 'Book.
Model of an Article in Creditor.
I  i o  1.-.  .    .      o     I 1. Is. I~~~~~d.l
lBY Cafnh, for his Remittance on James. !Fo. 16!9001010
ditor, all the Cafh that comes in or goes out of the Mer-
chant's Stock. In. this are enter'd all the Sums receiv'd
and pay'd daily; thofe receiv'd on the Left hand, with the
Perfon's Name, of whom receiv'd, for what, for whom, and
in what Species: Thofe paid, on the fide of Creditor * men
tioning, likewife, the Species, the Reafon why, the Perfon
to whom, and for whom the Payment is made. For In-
fiancei
ca,
Pay'd.
aodel of an Article in Credit.
May i4th, 17t I.
To Tim. H2all for 2 Tonn of Wax, 6boght
Ake zd I JXta4t,
A P rfe of -  L.1000:_:_
Pieces of EIgh, . L 00:-:-
k    L. i300:-:-
I.
1 300
A S .:
Up
d.
0
- h
II300
: 0 -
:                               - |


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