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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

B - beer,   pp. 75-94 PDF (21.0 MB)

Page 90

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BASTILE, is a finall antique fortified Cafille with Tur-
rets, made ufe of, at prefent, for Prifons; as that at Paris,
built byCharles V. 1369. which alone has retained thisName.
Originally, it fignified a Redoubt before a Place befieg'd.
BASTION, in the Modern Fortification, a huge Mafs
of Earth ufually faced with Sods, fometimes with Brick,
rarely with Stone, fanding out from a Rampart, whereof
it is a principal Part. This is what in the antient Fortifica-
tion was called !Bsidvark. A Baftion conlifis of two Faces
and two Flanks. 'The Faces are the Lines B C and C D,
(1ab. Fortification, Fig. I.) including the Angle of the
RBaflion: The Flanks are the Lines B A, S D. The U-
nion of the two Faces makes the outmofi or faliant Angle,
called alfo the Angle of the Bafition: The Union of the
two Faces to the two Flanks, makes the Side Angles, call-
ed the Shoulders or Epaules: And the Union of the two
other Ends of the Flanks to the two Curtains, the Angles
of the Flanks. Zaftions are either folid or hollow.
The Foundation of the Ziaftion is that great Rule in
Fortification, viz. That every Part of the Works muff
be feen and defended, from fome other Part: Mere An-
gles therefore are not fufficient, but Flanks and Faces are
indifpenfably requifite. If the iaftions E F G and H I K
confifled of Faces alone, the Angles G and H could not
be defended from the Lines F G or I H. But if the
Maftion confifis of Flanks and Faces, as A B C S D, all the
Points may be defended from the Flanks; there be-
ing none v. g. in the Face B C, but what may be de-
fended from the oppofite Flank EIL, nor any in the
Curtain A E, but may he defended from the adjacent
Flanks B A and E L; nor any in one Flank B A, but
may be defended from the other E L. For the Pro-
portions of the Faces are not to be lefs than 24 Rhine-
land Perches, nor more than 3o. The Flanks are better
as they are longer, provided they fland at the fame
Angle of the Line of Defence: Hence the Flank muft
fIand at right Angles to the Line of Defence. Indeed, in
the antient Fortification, the Flank is made perpendicular
to the Courtine, fo as to have the Angle out of the Ene-
mies Eye; but this is now provided for, by finking the
lower Part of the Flank two or three Perches, as the Line
AS, nearer the Axis of the Baftion CH: Which Part
thus funk, is better if made concave, than reailinear, and
if double, with a Ditch between, than if fingle. The Dif-
pofition of the Flanks makes the principal Tart of Fortifi-
cation; 'tis that on which the befence principally de-
pends, and which has introduced the various Forms and
Manners of Fortifying. If the Angle of the faftion be
lefs than 6o Degrees, it will be too Small to give Room for
Guns; and be Ides, fo acute as to be eafily beaten down
by the Enemies Guns ; to which may be added, that it
will either render the Line of Defence too long, or the
Flanks too fhort: It mufl therefore be more than 6o De-
grees; but whether or no it fhould be a right Angle, or
fome intermediate Angle between 6c and go, or even whe-
ther or no it flould exceed a right Angle, is fill difputed.
Hence it follows, that a Triangle can never be fortified, in
regard either fome or all of the Angles will be either 6o
Degrees, or lefs than 6o. See Fortification.
Solid Ziaftions are thofe that are fill'd up entirely, and
have the Earth equal to the Height of the Rampart,
without any void Space towards the Centre. Void or hol-
low Baflions are thofe that have a Rampart, or Parapet,
ranging only round about their Flanks and Faces, fo that a
void Space is left towards the Centre; and the Ground is
there fo low, that if the Rampart be taken, no Retrench-
ment can be made in the Centre, but what will lie under
the Fire of the Befieged.
A Flat Baftion is a ZBaflion built in the middle of a
Courtain, when it is too long to be defended by the Bafti-
on, at its Extremes: Dr. Harris fays, 'tis a ZBaflion built
on a right Line.
A Cut Baflion is that which has a re-entring Angle at
the Point'; Sometimes alfo called iaftion with a Zenaille;
ufed, when without fuch a Contrivance the Angle would be
too acute. We likewife gi ve the Term Cut ZBaftion to fuch a
one as is cut off fiom the Place by fome Ditch, &tc. fome mo-
dern Engineers having found the Art of Fortifying by Pieces
detach'd from the reil. Thefe are alfo called Ravelines.
A Compofed Baflion is when the two Sides of the interi-
or Polygon are very unequal, which makes the Gorges alfo
A Regular ZBaflion is that which hath its due Proportion
of Faces, Flanks, and Gorges.
A fDeformed or Irregular Baftion is that whiclh wants
one of its Demi-Gorges; one Side of the interior Polygon
being too fhort. See Gorge.                 -
A Dilemi-Bajtioi hath but one Face and Flank. To for-
tify the Angle of a Place that is too acute, they cut the
Point, and place two EDemi-Ziaftins, which make a 7re-
~ail/c? or a re-entring Angle. Their chief Ufe is before
a Hornwork or Crownwork. See 2enaille.
B A Ti
A .Double Saftion is that, which on the Plain of the
great Baftion hath another Baftion built higher; leaving
i2 or i8 Feet between the Parapet of the lower and the
Foot of the higher.
BASTON, in Law, is ufed for one of the Wardens of
the Fleet; being Officers who attend the King's Courts
with a red Staff, for taking fuch to Ward as are comnmitted
by the Court. See Warden.
BATCHELOR, in a College Senfe, a Perfon poffiefs'd
of the Bacculaureate, which is the firft Degree in the Li-
beral Arts or Sciences. At Oxford, e'er a Perfon be en-
titled to the Degree of ZBatchelor of Arts, he muf* have
fiudied there four Years; three Years more to become
NMafer of-4rts; and reven more to commence Yatchelor
of Divinity. At Cambridge, to commence Batchelor of
Arts, he mufi have refided three Years; three Year. more
to commence Mafler; and feven more fill to become
!Batchelor of Divinity. He may commence Batchelor of
Law after having fludied it fix Years. See SIkgree.
In France, e'er the Theology-Chairs were founded, they
had their Baccularei Curfores, and B~accularei Formati;
the former whereof were yet in their Courfe, or had not
yet pafs'd thro their Offices; and the latter had. The
Crirfores were again divided into Baccularei Biblici, who
explain'd the Scriptures, and Btaccularei Sententiarii, who
explain'd the Maker of the Sentences.
There is fcarce any Word whole Origin is more contro-
verted among the Criticks than that of Batchelor, !accu-
lareus. Martinius derives the Word from the Latin
Baccalaurea, quai l bacca laurea donatus3 in allufion to
the Cuflom that antiently obtain'd, of crowning the Poets
with Laurel, baccis lauri, as Petrarch was at Rome in
1341; and A/icatus and Vives are of the fame Opinion.
Rhenanus derives it from .Baculus or Bacillus, a Staff, be-
caufe at their Commencement a Staff was put into their
Hands, as a Symbol of their Authority, of their Studies
being finifh'd, and of the Liberty they were reflored to.
Thus the antient Gladiators had a Staff given 'em as a
Difcharge, which Horace calls rude fDonatus. But Spel-
man rejefts this Opinion, in regard there is no Appearance,
that the Ceremony of putting a Staff in the Hand was
ever ufed in the creating of .Batchelors.
!Batchelor was alfo a Title given to a young Cavalier,
who made his firfl Campaign, and received the military
Girdle accordingly. Cambden defines a .Batchelor, a Per-
fon of a middle Degree between a fimple Knight and a
'Squire: Or, as fome will have it, /Batchelor was a com-
mon Name for all the Degrees between a mere Gentle-
man and a Baron: Thus we find the Lord Admiral fome-
times fo call'd. See Knight .atchelor.
Knights Batchelors were antiently fo call'd, quaiL as Che-
valiers, as being the lowefi Order of Knights, or inferior to
Bannerets, &c. See Knigbt. At prefent thefe are call'd E-
quitesAurati, from the gilt Spurs that are put on 'em at the
time of their Creation. The Dignity was at firff confined
to the military Men, but afterwards was confer'd on Men
of the Robe. The Ceremony is exceedingly fimple; the
Candidate kneeling down, the King touches him lightly
with a naked Sword, and fays, Sois Chevalier, an nom de
lieu; and afterwards, Avance Chevalier. Loyfeau de-
rives the Word, in this Senfe, from !Bas Efcbelon, as being
the laff of the military Orders; Cujas, from .uccellarius,
a kind of Knights antiently in great Efleem; iDu Cauge,
from ZBaccalaria, a kind of Fees, or Farm confifling of
feveral Pieces of Ground, each whereof contain'd 12 Acres,
or as much as two Oxen wou'd plough ; the Poffrefors of
which Baccalaria were call'd Baatchelors: He adds, that
'Batchelor fometimes fignifies Labourer, and fometimes a
Freeman of a City. A !atchelor of Arms was a Name
formerly given to a Perfon who came off Vi6ltor in his firft
Engagement. Laflly, Cafeneuve and Altaterra derive the
Word 7Batchelor from 2?aculus, a Staf, in regard the young
Cavaliers exercifed themselves in fighting with Staffs and
Bucklers: Which Opinion is confirm'd from their being
call'd Baculares in Oderic, and Bacularii by Waflungham
in Richard I's Time.
BAT-FOWLING, a Method of catching Birds in the
Night, by lighting fome Straw or Torches near the Place
where they are at Roof; for, upon beating them up, they
ly to the Flames, where, being amaz'd, they are eafily caught
i in Nets, or beat down with Buhfes fix'd to the Ends of
Poles, Wc.
BATH, a convenient Receptacle of Water for Perfons to
walh, or plunge in, either for Health or Pleafure. See Water.,
fBathsareeitherNTaturalor Artificial. Natmralagain,are
either Hot or Cold. Hot Barths, call'd alfo 71herme, owe
their Origin partly to the Admixture of fulphureous Parti-
cles, while the Water is pagfing thro its fubterranean Ca-
nals; or rather, while it creeps thro Beds and Mines of Sul-
- phur, {. and partly to the Fumes and Vapours exhaling
up thro the Pores of the Earth, where Sulphur is, whe-
ther pure or impure, as in Coals, Amber, Lec. For thef;

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