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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

Arboreus - artery,   pp. *125-144 PDF (18.4 MB)


Page 144


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ART is better defined, after my Lod !Bacon, a proper
Difpoal of the Things of Nature by human Thought and
Experience, fo as to make them anfwer the Defigns and
Ufes of Mankind. See ExifRIMENT, Ac.
Nature, according to that Philofopher, is fometimes free,
and at her own Difpofal; and then !he manifefis herfelf in
a regular Order. as we fee in the Heavens, Plants, Animals,
Ec.-Sometimes The is irregular, and diforderly, either
thro' fome uncommon Accident, or a Depravation in Mat-
ter, when the Refiflance of fome Impediment perverts her
from her Courfe; as in the Produflion of Monflers. See
MONsTER .-At other Times Ihe is fubdued and fathion'd
by human Indufiry, and made to ferve the feveral Purpofes
of Mankind.
This lail is what we call Art; in which Senfe, Art lands
oppofed to Nature. See NATURE, ARTIFICIAL, EC.
* Hence, the Knowledge of Nature may be divided into
the Hiffory of Generations, of Prztergenerations, and of
Arts.-The firfi confiders Nature at Liberty; the fecond,
her Errors; and the third, her Reffraints.-
ART is alfo ufed for Science or Knowledge reduced into
Praffice. See KNOWLEDGE.
Several of the Schoolmen hold Logic and Ethicks to be
Arts; inafmuch as they do not terminate in mere Theory,
but tend to Prafice. See THEORY and PRACTICE; fee
alfo LOGIC iS, ETHICES, Fc.
In this Senfe, fome Branches of the Mathematicks are
Arts, others Matters of Do&rine, or Science. See MATHE-
MATICES.
Staticks is wholly fcientifical, as it takes up with the mere
Contemplation of Motion: Mechanicks, on the contrary,
is an Art, as it reduces the Dodtrines of Staticks into Prac.
tice. See MATIHEMATICKS.
ART is principally ufed for a certain Syflem or Collelion
of Rules, Precepts, and Inventions or Experiments, which
being duly obferv'd, make the Things a Man undertakes
fucceed, and render them advantageous and agreeable. See
RULE, PkEeEPT, EXPERIMENT,E.
In this Senfe, Art is oppofed to Science, which is a
Colleion of fpeculative Principles and Conclufions. See
SCIENCE.
71he Nature and Origin of Art, and its Dij~ntlion from
Science, will be farther conrider'd in the Preface to this
Work.
Arts, in this Senfe, may be divided, with refpeat to their
Scope and Obje&, into human, as Medicine; and divine, as
Theology. See MEDICINE and THEOLOGY.
Human, again, may be fubdivided into Civil; as Law,
Politicks, &c. Military, as Fortification, Lc. Phyrfcal, as
Agriculture, Chymificry, Anatomy, aec. Metaphyfical, as
Logicks, pure Mathematicksgc. bPhilological, as Gram-
mar, Citicifm, c. Mercantile, to which belong the Me-
chanichl Arts and Manufadures. See each in its Place.
ARTS are more popularly divided into Liberal and Me-
chanical.
The liberal Arts are thofe that are noble, and ingenuous;
or which are worthy of being cultivated without any re-
gard to Lucre arifing therefrom.-Such are Poetry, Mu-
icrk, Painting, Grammar, Rhetoric, the military Art, Ar-
chiteg ure, and Navigation. See LIBERAL; fee alfo POE-
TRY, MUSIC, GRAMMAR, RHETORIC, &C.
M/echanical Arts, are thofe wherein the Hand, and Body
are more concern'd than the Mind; and which are chiefly
cultivated for the fake of the Profit they bring with them.-
of which kind are moi of thofe which furnilh us with the
Neceffaries of Life, and are popularly known by the Name
ofST'rades.-Such are Weaving, 4turnery, !Brewing, Mafonry,
Clock-making, Carpentry, .7oinery, Foundery, Printing, &c.
See TRADE, MANUFACTURE, &C.
The mechanical Arts take their Denomination from jin-
2yvn, Machine; as being all praffifed by means of fome
Machine or Infirument. See MACHIIE, &C
With the liberal A4rts it is otherwife ; there being feveral
of them which may be learnt and praficed without any
Infirument at all: As Logic, Eloquence, Medicine proper-
ly fo called, &c.
The Arts which relate to the Sight and Hearing, MY Lord
Bacon obferves, are'reputed liberal beyond trofe which re-
gard the other Senfes, which are chiefly employed in Mat-
ters of Luxury. See SENSE.
It has been well noted by fome Philofophers, that during
the Rife and Growth of States, the military Arts chiefly
flourih ; when arrived at their Height, the liberal Arts)
and when on the declining hand, the voluptuary Arts.
There are alfo divers particular Arts; as the Art of Me-
mory, the Art of Decyphering, Art of Flying, of Swim-
ming, Art of Diving, &c. Spe MEMORY, DECYPHERING,
FLYING, SWIMMING, DIVING, &c.
!Derocritus maintainmd, that Men learnt all their Arts
fjom Brutes; the Spider taught 'em Weaving, the Swallow
Milding, the Nightingale Mufi and fovea Medicine
ART
fihe Naturc, Owe, Hifoty, &. of thiefveral Arts
svill be found under their rejfeffive Articls to this Zi fi-
onary,
The Word Art is derived from -the Greek aprvI, Virtue,
luduflry.-This is the Opinion of 2)onatu, on the firf
Scene of Ierence's Andria: Ars           d iJS 4.i-l, dla eft per
Syncopen. Others derive it from Adj, Utility, 'Profit ,
which is found in that Senk: in Fchylus.
ART is alfroapplied to divers imaginary, and even fuper-
flitious Dofrines and Inventions.-Such are,*
Lully's ART, or the l'rapfcowdenatl Art, by means
whereof a Man may difpute whole Days on any Topic in
Nature, without underflanding the leafl tittle of the Thing
in Difpute; thus called from its Inventor Raimond Lully, or
Ramons Lull.
It confifis chiefly in difpofing the feveral Sorts of Bings
into divers Scales or Climaxs, to be run down in a deficend-
ing Progreflion.-Thus, whatever were propofed to be talk'd
on, they wou'd fay, firfl, it is a Being, and confequendy,
one, true, good, perfed: then, it is eather created, or in-
ereated. Again, every created Being is either Body or Spi-
rit, &C.
Angelical ART, or the Art of Spirits, is a Method of
attaining to the Knowledge of any thing defired, by means
of an Angel, or rather of a Diemon. See DAMON.
Under this come the Arts of Magic, Sorcery, Witchcraft,
&c. See MAGIC, SORCERY, WITCHCRAFT,&C.
rerm of ART, r fee    TERM,
Mafter of ARTS, I   fMASTER, DEGREE, FACVLTY.
Ars Notoria, is a manner of acquiring Sciences by Infufion,
without any other Application than a little Failing, and
making a few Ceremonies. See FASTING, &C.
They who make Profeffion of this Art, affirm that it was
by means hereof that Solomon, in one Night's Time, ac-
quired all his Knowledge.-~Delrio fhews it to be a crimi-
nal Curiofity, and founded on a fecret Compaa with the
Devil. fwzfquW Mag. p. I I. It was folemnly condemn'd by
the Sorbonne, in 1310.
St. Anfelm's ART, is a fuperflitious Manner of curing
Wounds, by barely touching the Linen wherewith thofe
Wounds had been cover'd. See WOUND and SYMPATHY.
.Velrio, in his fDifqui:ftiones Magice, obferves that fome
Italian Soldiers, who praticed this Art, attributed the In-
vention thereof to St. Anfelm; but affures us withal, that it
was really invented by Anfelm of Parma, a celebrated Ma-
gician.
St. Paul's ART, IS a Branch of the Ars Notoria, fo called
as being fuppofed to have been taught by St. Paul, after his
being -taken up into the third Heaven.
ART and P7'art, is a Term ufed in the North of England,
and in Scotland.-When any one is charged with a Crime,
they fay he is Art and Part in committing the fame; that
is, he was both a Contriver, and abed a Part in it. See
PRINCIPAL, ACCESSARY,Wc.
ARTERIOTOMY, in Chirurgery, &c. the Operation of
opening an Artery; or of letting of Blood by the Arteries;
prafficed in fome extraordinary Cafes. See ARTERY, PHLE-
BOTOMY, &c.-For the Effects hereof, fee ANEURISMA.
Arteriotonmy, is a very dangerous Operation, feldom
ufed with Defign, except in the Temples, and behind the
Ears, where the Arteries are eafily clofed again by reafon of
the Cranium underneath, which would be very difficult in
any other Part.-In the other Parts it ufually proves fatal;
and we have numerous Inflances of Perfons kill'd in Bleed-
ing, by a Miflake of an Artery for a Vein.
Catherwood endeavours to introduce Arteriotomy ift apa.
pleffic Cafes, as much preferable to Venzfeffion; but he is
not much followed. See APOPLEXY.
The Word is form'd of opTiete, and 7tnp, feco, I cut.
ARTERY, ARTERIA, in Anatomy a hollow fiflulous
Canal, appointed to receive the Blood from the Ventricles of
the Heart, and difiribute it to all Parts of thp Body, for the
Maintainance of Heat and Life, and the Conveyance of the
neceffary Nutriment. See BLOOD, HEART, LIFE, &C.
The Word is Greek, epevea; which fome inagine deriv'd
from Ap, Aer, the Air, and  tPo, fero, to  eep: But
others who underfiand the Ufe of the Part better, derive it
from oqra Aitpgr, becaufe of its continual Throbbing or-
Beating.
The Arteries are ordinarily compofed of three Coats or
Membranes. The firf+ or outermoA, nervous or tendinous;
being a Thread of fine Blood Veffiels with Nerves, for nou-
rifhing the other Coats. The fecond mufcular, made up of
circular, or rather fpiral Fibres ;'of which there are more or
fewer Strata, according to the Bignefs of the Ar : Thefer
Fibres have a  rog Elalicit, by which they contra them-
felves with Force, when the ower  which they havenbee:4
Wretched out, ceafes.  The third and inmof Cot is a
fine, denfe, tranfoarent Membrane, which kbep* the Blood
within its Channels, whih othvrwife upon tkc DilatatiXt
Of
ART


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