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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

Arboreus - artery,   pp. *125-144 PDF (18.4 MB)


Page *128


(*128 )
The judge of the Court of the Arches, is called the
-Dean o' tbe Arches, or the Ofcial of the Arches Court,
,sc. with which Officialty, is commonly joined a peculiar
3urifdiclion over thirteen Parithes in London, termed a
!Deanery, exempt from the Authority of the Bifhop of Lon
don, and belonging to the Archbifhop of Canterbury; of
which the Parilh of BRow is one, and the principal.
Others fuppofe the Denomination and Funtlions of Dean
of the Arches to have arofe hence, that the Archbifhop's
Official or Dean being oft employ'd abroad in foreign Em-
bafflies, the Dean of the Arches was his Subflitut e in this
Court.
This Judge on any Appeal made, forthwith, and without
any farther Examination of the Caufe, fends out his Cita-
tion to the Appellee, and his Inhibition to the Judge from
whom the Appeal was made.
The Advocates who are allowed to plead in the Arches
Court, are to be Doaors of the Civil Law, in one of our
Univerfities. See ADVOCATE.
ARCHETYPE, ARCIuETYPUs, a Pattern or Model,
by which any Work is form'd, or which is copied after, to
make another like it. See MODEL.
In this fenfe the Word coincides with Original; and
Rands oppofed to Copy. See ORIGINAL and CopY.
Among Minters, &c. Archetype is peculiarly ufed for the
Standard or original Weight, by which the other Weights
are to be adjufled and examined. See STANDARD.
The Philofophers, particularly the Platonifis, talk of an
Archetypal World i meaning, the World, fuch as it exifled
in the Divine Mind, or in the Idea of God, before the Cre-
ation; See IDEA, PLATONISM, &C.
The Word is compounded of cg, Beginning; and 7vu ro,
Type. See Ty PE.
ARCHIACOLYTHUS, q. d. ChiefXcolythus; was an an-
tient Dignity, in Cathedral Churches: the Minifters where-
of were divided into four Orders, or Degrees, viz. Priefts,
Deacons, Subdeacons, and Acolythi; each of which had
their Chiefs:  The Chief of the Acolythi was called
Archiacolythus. See ACoLYTJIUS, SC.
ARCHIATER,AARCHIATRus, ARciHIAToR, the chief
Phyfician of a Prince who retains feveral. See PHYSI-
CIAN.
The Word is form'd of the Greek dp;', Principium,
Chief; and ,L7t, Medicus, a Phyfician.
ARCHIEUNUCH, ARcH]ExUNUCHUS, the Chief of
the Eunuchs. See EUNUCH.
The Archieunuch was one of the principal Officers in
Conjlantinople, under the Greek Emperors.
ARCHIGALLUS, in Antiquity, the Chif of Cybele's
Priefls, call'd Galli. See GALLI.
ARCHILOQUIAN, a Term in Poetry, applied to a
fort of Verfes,- whereof Archilochus was the Inventor. See
VERSE.
Thefe confife of feven Feet; the four firf[ whereof are
ordinarily Dactyls, tho' fometimes Spondees i the three lafi
Trochees: for inflance i
Solvitur acris Hyems grata vice 7eris u Favoni. Hor.
'Tis ufual to mix Iambic Verfes of fix Feet, abating a
Syllable, with Archiloquian Verfes; as Horace himfelf has
done in the Ode now cited.
Thefe Verfes are alfo call'd Daelylic, on account of
the Daayls at the beginning. See DACTYL and DAC-
TYLIC,
ARCHIMANDRITE, the Superior of a Monaftery;
amounting to what we now call Abbot. See ABBOT, Su-
PERIOR, tSc.
Covarruvias obferves, that the Word literally denotes the
Chief or Leader of a Flock; in which fenfe it may be ap-
plied to any Ecclefiaflical Superior: Accordingly, we find
the Name fometimes attributed to Archbifhops. But a-
mong the Greeks, where it is chiefly ufed, it is refrained
to the Chief of an Abbey.
M. Simon maintains the Word originally derived from
the Syriac; at leaff the part Mandrite, which by a Circu-
ition, he makes to fignify a Solitary or Monk.
ARCHIMIME, ARCIIIMIMts, is the fame thing, in
effed, with Arch-Buffoon.
The Archimimes, among the Romans, were Perfons who
imitated the Manners, Geflures, and Speech both of the
Living and the Dead. See MIME.
At irfl they were only employ'd on the Theatre; but were
afterwards admitted to their Feafls, and at lafi to their Fu-
nerals where they walked after the Corps, counterfeiting
the Geflures and Behaviour of the Perfon who was carry-
ing to the Funeral Pileo as if he were Rill alive. See
FUNERAL.
&
An   > f
A - . >
ARCHIPELAGO, in Geograp, a
by a great Number of Iflands. Sa SEA.
The mofl celebrated, and that to which
fome meafare appropriated, is that betwee
donia, and Afa; wherein are the Iflandi
Sea: which is call'd the White Sea, in con
the Euxine, which they call the Black Sea,
The modern Geographers mention other
as, that of Lazarvs, n'ar the Coaft of Ad
lacca; the Archipelago of Mexico; that
wherein are above 10o0o iflands; that of
containing X iooo Iflands ; thofe of the AS
bes, &c.
The Word is form'd, by Corruption, 4
q. d. .Aigean Sea; which, again, is form'd
or Holy Sea; a Name originally given it b:
account of the Cyclades, for which they I
Veneratiod.
ARCHIPERACITA, or A.cnIPnER i
cer in the Yewijf Academies. See ACAD:
The Archiperacita was not the fame wi
nagogus, as Grotius and others have miftal
but rather the Chief or Principal of tlef
read. exDlain. and profefs the Law, in theii
And hence the Namee; which is form'd of the Gi
Chief; and the Hebrew or Chaldee P%, Pherak, .
I'
'I
U
Chapter.
ARCH-LEvITE, ARCHILEVITA. See ARCtiDE:ACoN
ARCHMARSHAL,ARcIIlMARIsCHALLUS, the Grst
Marlhal of the Empire. See MARSHAL.
The Ele~lor of Saxony is Archbmarlhal of the El
pire; and in that Quality goes immediately before t
Emperor, bearing a naked Sword.
ARCH-MINISTER, ARc11IMINISTER, the Prime )4
nifler of a Prince or State. See MINISTER.
Charles the Bald having declared Bofion his Viceroy i
Italy, under the Title of Duke; made him alfo his &
Minifter under that of Archiminifter: from the Greek ,p
and the Latin Minifter-Chorier.
ARCH-PRIEST, ARCnIPRESBYTER, a Prieff, efL
blilbed in Come Diocefes, with a Pre-eminence over the rd
See PRIEST.
Antiently, the Arch-Prieft was the fir{i Perfon after dI
Bifhop, and even adced as his Vicar, in his abfence, as I
all fpiritual Concerns. In the fixth Century, there wel
found feveral Arch-Priefls in the fame Diocefe; fiJi
which time they were call'd D~eans. See DEAN.
In the ninth Century, they diftinguilhed two kinds e
Cures or Parifhes; the fmaller, govern'd by fimple Priefls
and the Baptifmal Churches, by Archipresbyters, who, bi
fide the immediate Concern of the Cure, had the Infp
tion of the other inferior Priefis, and gave an account there
of to the Bifhop, who governed the Chief or Cathedri
Church in Perfon. See BisnoP, PARISH, CATREDRAI
Lc.
There are Arch-P'resbyters flill fubfiffing in the Greei
Church; vefiled with moft of the Funaions and Privilege
of Chorepifcopi, or Rural Deans.  See CHoEmPIscorv
and RURAL SDean.
ARCH-PRINTER, ARCHITYPOGRAPHluS. See PE N
TER.
ARCH-PRIoR, was a Name Sometimes given to tb
Mafler of the Order of Templars. See MASTER anU
TEMP LAR.
ARCH ISTRATEGUS, Ap~4X1vzAo', the Generaliflinp
Uf ..Rpa1  '.: <  Ar m
ARCHITECT, ARCIXITECTUS, a Perfon s'
chiteflure, or the Art of Buildings; who mak
Defigns of Edifices, conducts the Work, and
Mafons and other Artificers employ'd therein.
CI1TECTURE, PLAN, DESIGN, &C.
The Word is derived from the Greek owned
and 7-ilov, Workman, q. d. the principal Work]
The moft celebrated Architetfs are, Fitruvii
Scamozzi, Serlio, Vignola, Barbaro, Catan
Viola, BRullant, and De Lorme.
Vitruvius enumerates twelve Qualities req
Architeifti That he be Docil and Ingenious
skill'd in Defigning; in Geometry; Optickle
tick; Hiflory; Philofophy; Mufick; Medicine
Afirology. See BUILDING, G. 5C
ARCHITECTONICK, that which builds
regilarly, according to the Nature and Inten
o t
Thus, that plaflick Power, Spirit, or whatev
which hatches the Ova of Females into livin
of the fame Species, is by fome called the A.
Spirit. See PLASTICK.
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