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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Arboreus - artery,   pp. *125-144 PDF (18.4 MB)

Page *127

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The Archbifhop of Canterbury had antiently juritdic-
uion over Ireland as w ell as England, and was ftyled a
'Patriarch, and Sometimes Alterius orbis Papa, and Orbis
SBritannici PontJecx. Matters done and recorded in his
Name ran thus, Anno Pontificatus nojiri primo, &c. See
He was alfo Legatus Natus. See LEG ATE.
He even enjoyed fome fpecial Marks of Royalty ; as, to
be Patron of a Bifhoprick, which he was of Rochefter; to
make Knights, coin Monies, Wc.-   He is fill the firil
Peer of England, and next to the Royal Family; having
precedence of all Dukes, and all Great Officers of the
He has, by Common Law, the Power of Probate of \ills
and Teflaments, and granting Letters of Adminiflration,
He has alfo a Power to grant Licences and Difpenfations
in all Cafes formerly fued for in the Court of Rome, and not
repugnant to the Law of God. See DISPENSATION, PLU-
He alfo holds feveral Courts of Judicarure; as, Court of
Arches, Courtof Audience, Prerogative Court, and Court
of Peculiars. See ARCrES, AUDIENCE, SC.
The Archbifhop of Tork has the like Rightsin his Pro-
vince, as the Archbifhop of C'anterbury has precedence of
all Dukes not of the Royal Blood; and all Officers of State
except the Lord High Chancellor. He has the Rights of
a Count Palatine over Hcxam.0ire. See CONVOCATION,
cer, whofe Bufinefs is to vifit the Parifhes within a certain
Difiria, or part of a Diocefe committed to him. See VisIx-
The 4rchdeacon, Sometimes alto call'd Arch-Levite, was
originally the firft and eldefi of the Deacons who attended
on the biflbop; whence his Name. See DEACON.
He was not known before the Council of Nice: his Func-
tion is fince become a Dignity; and even fet above that of
PriePt: tho' antiently it was quite otherwife. The Arch-
deacon was the Bifhop's chief Minifler for all external Con-
cerns, and particularly the Adminifiration of ithe Tempo-
ralties. He took care that Order and Decency were obferv'd
in Divine Service, look'dto the Ornaments and Utenfils of
the Church ; had the Diredion of the Poor, and the In-
fpeflion ofthe Manners and Behaviour of she People: for
which reafon he was cali'd the  ijbop's Hand and Eye.
Thefe Advantages. foon got him the upperhand over
Priefis, who had only Spiritual Funaions. But he had no
Jurififion over 'em till the VIth Century; tho' by this
time he was become fuperior to the Archimandrite, or
Rural Dean himfelf. See RURAL Dean.
In the Xrh Century Archdeacons were confidered as ha-
ving JurifdiE-ion in their own Right or attach'd to their
Cfice ; with a Power of Delegating it to others. But from
that time Meafures weretaken to leflien their Power, by
increafingtheir Number-He whofe Difiri& lay in the
Capital City, took the Quality of Great-Archdeacon.
We have fixty Archdeacons in Evgland: their Office is
to vifit every other Year, to enquire into Reparations and
Moveables belonging to the Church, reform Abufes in
Ecclefiafiical Matters, and bring the more weighty Affairs
before the Bilhop; befides which, they have alfo a Power
to fufpend, excommunicate, and in many Places to prove
Wills, and in fome to inftitute to Benefices.
It is one part of the .wrchdeacon's Office to indua all
Clerks into their Benefices within his Jurifdilion ; and by
the Att of Uniformity, he is now oblig'd to be in Priefts
Orders. See INDUCTION.
Many /rchdeacons in old Foundations, have, by prefcrip-
tion, their Courts and Officials as Bilhops have.  See
Officer of the Empire i much the fame with what in Eng-
land we call Great Chamberlain. See CHAMBERLAIN.
The Elea9or of !Brandenbourg is Arch Chamberlain of
the Empire, being to appointed by the Golden Bull ; and
in that Quality, he bears the Scepter before the Emperor,
walking on the left hand of the Eleaor of Saxony. At tome
Solemnities he ferves on horfeback like otherlilclorsi carry
ing a Bafon with a 'Towel in his Hands: from which alight-
ing he fets it for the Emperor to waffi-He has his Vicar,
or Sub Arcb-Ckamberlain, who is Prince of Hoheuzollern,
of the Houfe of B8randenkourg. See ELECTOR, EMPIRE,
Great Chancellor, who aitiently prefided over the Nota-
ries, that is, the Secretaries of a Court. SeeCHANCELLOR.
This Office chiefly obtained in France, under the two
frft Racqs of their Kings ; and afterwards under the Em-
pire: as they had three feveral Territories, Germanjy Iraty,
and Arles; they had three Arch-Chancellors; and hence
the three A4rch Chancellors fill fubfihing in Germany, the
Archbifhopof Mentz being Adrch-Chancellor of Germany,
the Archbilhop of Cclogn of Italy, and the Archbifhop ot
Y'reves of Aries.
Biern. de AMalliackroth, in an exprefs Treatifc de Archi.
cancellariis Imterii R omani, fhews that thefe three Arch-
bifhops were A4rch-Chancellors before they were Eleators.
We alfo read of Arch-Chancellors of Burgiizndy, &c.
Prefident of the Chanters of a Church. See CIIAN-TL, K
ARCH DRuID, ARCHIDRUIPA, the Ghief or Pontiff
of the antient Druids ina Nation. See DRUID.
ARCH    BUTLER,    ARCHilPINCERNA,     the  Great
Butler of the Empire. See BuTTLER.
The King of ohemia is Arch-butler: his Buflnefs is to
prefent the fir[I Cup at an Imperial Entertainment ; but he
is not obliged to officiate with his Crown on. He has for
Vicar or Deputy the Hereditary Prince of L;imourg. See
AR( H DAP FER, or Chief-Se-xver, isano-her Officer cf
the Empire. See EMP IRE.
The Eleaor of Bavaria is Xrchdapifer-The Palatine of
the Rhine pretended this Office was annexed to his Palati-
nate; but has fince defined. See PA L ATINE.
ARCHDUKE, ARCIIIDuX, a Duke vefted with tome
Quality, Pre-eminence, and Authority above other Dukes.
The Archduke of Aufiria is a very antient Title. There
have alfo been archdukes of Lorraini, and YlralCant.
Auflria was ercated into a Marquifate by Ortt , or Ren-
ry I. and into a Dutchy by Friderici. in 1I 56: But we
don't well know when, nor why the Title A4rch-dutchj,, was
given it-'Tis commonly held, that Duke Frideric IV.
firfi affiumed the Quality: Others, that it was given by
the Emperor Maxirvilian 1. in 1459 ; and ample Privileges
annexed to it. The principal hereof are, That the Arch-
duke fhall diflribute Juflice in his own Dominions, without
Appeal; that he fhall be judg'd to have received the In-
vefliture of his States, after having demanded it three
times; and cannot be deprived of his Countries, even by
the Emperor and the States of the Empire: that no Af-
fair of the Empire can be concluded without his Participa-
tion ; and that he have a power of creating Counts, Ba-
rons, and Gentlemen, throughout the whole Empire; which
are Privileges to which the other Dukes of the Empire are
A RCHE, among Phyficians, the beginning of a Difeafe.
ARCHED      Legs, is a: linperfe~lion in a Horfe  rhcen
being in his natural Poftion, he has his Legs bent forwards;
and his whole Leg makes a kind of Arch or Bow. See
It ufually arifes from exceffive Labour, whereby the
back Sinews are made to fhrink up fo   that tile Legs re-
main arch'd, and tremble after a little Riding. Tho the
Diforder is fometimes natural to them.
ARCHERS, a kind of Militia or Soldiery, armed with
Bows and Arrows. See A      RM, MILITIA, S5C.
They were much in ufe in former Times; but are now
laid afide, excepting in Eurky, and tome of the Eaflern
Countries; where therearc Companies of Archers fill on
foot in their Armies.
The Name Archer, however, is f1ill retained even
where the Thing is loft : Thus, in France, the Officers
who attend the Prevofis, to make Captures, Seizures, Ar-
refis, Ccc. are called Archers; tho their Arms be  only Hal.
berds or Carabines-  .In this fenfe they fay, the   Archers
of the Grand Prevot de l'Hotel; of the Prevot d's Aar-
chands; the City AIrchers X the Archers du Guet, or of the
Watch, 'c.
They have alfo their Arcbers des Pauvres, Archers of
the Poor; whofe Office is to feize fuch Beggars as they find
in the Streets, and carry them to the Hofpitals.
The Word is    form'd of the  Latin  Ircus, a  Bow; whence
Arcuarivs, zrquites, and even Arquis, as we    fometimes
read it in the corrupt State of that   Tongue- Varro
obferves, that Archer originally fignified a  Brigand, or
ARCHERY, in our antient Cuflomns, a    Service of keep-
a Bow for the Ufe of the Lord, to defend his Caftle. See
ARCHES, orCourt of ARCnES, isone of the Archbi-
fhop's Courts; to which Appeals lie in Ecclefiaflical Mat-
ters from all parts of the Province of Canterbury. See
This Court is thus call'd, from the arch'd Church and
Tower of St. Mary l .Bow, where it was wont to be
held.                                            Th   o

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