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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Antinomasy - arbor,   pp. 110-128 ff. PDF (18.5 MB)

Page 118

A? Po
are to be added powerfilI Purgatives, ClAers, E0c.
cupping tnd Scarrification on the Head, are commend-
ed bv forne in lieu of Venaiifeaion.
The Difeafe Sometimes degenerates into a Paralyfis.-"
Sometimes only half the Head is affeked; in which Cafe
the Difeafe is called Hemiplegia. See HEMIrLEaIA,EC.
The Word A4poplexy, comes fom the Greek, dSm7iiMew,
to firike or afioni  this Diftemper firiking Luddenly, and,
as it were, like a Thunder-bolt.
APOrraLECTIC Water, ,/qua Aople~ica. See WATER.
APORE, APoRoN, or APoRiME, a Problem difficult
to refolve, and which has never been refolved, tho' it be
not, in itfelf, impoffible. See PROBLEM.
Such we conceive the Quadrature of the Circle; the
Duplicature of the Cube; the Trificaion of an Angle, Wc.
The Word is derived from the Greek dalV, which figni-
fhes Lomething very difficult and impracticable; being
formed from the Privative a, and 7raven, PafTage.
Hence alfo the Word Pore, which is underilood of thofe
imperceptible Paifages in Bodies, which make room for the
Tranfpiration of Humours. See PORE.
When a Queflion was propofed to any of the Greek Phi-
lofophers, efpecially of the Seat of Academifis if he could
not give a Solution, his Anfwer was 9C=&eZ, q. d. I do not
conceive it, I cannot fee thro' it, I am not able to clear
it up.
APORRHOE, ApoaRmo0Es, in Philofophy, fulphu-
reous Effluvia or Exhalations, emitted from the Earth, and
fubterraneous Bodies. See VAPOUR and Exhalation.
The Word is form'd from the Greek &7mfgfcv, defluo, I
flow from. See MEPnirTES, SeC.
APOSIOPESIS, in Rhetoric, otherwife called Reti-
cency; a Figure, by which a Perfon really fpeaks of
a thing, at the fame time, that he makes a fhew as if he
would Lay nothing of it. See RETICENCY.
The Word comes from the Greek '-;=s'x', taceo, re-
APOSTASY, a deferting or abandoning of the true Re-
ligion. See RENEG A O.
Among the Romanifs, it alfo fignifies the forfaking of a
religious Order, whereof a Man had made Profeflion; with-
out a lawful Difpenfation. See O R ER,  c.
The Antients diflinguifh'd three kinds of Ajoftacy; the
firfl, a Supererogatione, is committed by a Prieft or
Religious, who abandons his Profeffion, and returns to his
Lay State; the fecond, a Ala datis EDei, by a Perfon of
any Condition, who abandons the Commands of God, tho'
he retain his Faith; the third, a Fide, by him who not
only abandons good Works, but alfo the Faith.
There is this difTerence betwixt an Ap oftate, and an He-
retic; that the latter only abandons a part of the Faith,
whereas theformer renouncesthe whole. Sec HERETIC.
The Word is borrow'd from the Latin zipojfatare, to de-
fpife or violate any thing. Hence
ApoJlatare Seges, anciently fignified to tranfgrefs the
Laws.-      ii lrges Apof abit terrae fue, reus fit apud Re-
gem. L. L. Edw. Confeff.
The Latin Apoftatare, again, comes from the Greek tro,
and isvpa, flo, I fland.
APOSTATA Capiendo, a Writ which antiently lay againfl
one, who having enter'd and profefs'd fome Order of Reli-
gion; broke out again, and wandred the Country, contrary
to the Rules of his Order. See APOSTACY.
APOSTEME, APOSTEMA, AposTuME, in Medicine,
a preternatural Tumor; call'd alfo Abfcefs and ImfoJlhume.
The Word is form'd of the Greek eantyua; which comes
from the Verb cruu.3ai, abfcedere, to depart from one place
and fix in another; alluding to the manner wherein the
Tumor is ufually form'd of a tranflated Humor. See DE-
APOSTLE, APOSTOLus, q. d. Envoy or Meffenger;
a Difciple of Jefus Chrift, commifflon'd by him to preach
his Go3pel, and propagate it to all the Parts of the Earth.
St. Paul is frequently call'd the Apofile, by way of Emi-
nence; and the Apofle of the Gentiles, by reafon his Mini-
firy was chiefly made ufe of for the Converfion of the Gen-
tile World, as that of St. Peter was for the Yews.
The feveral Apofiles are ufually represented with their re-
fpedive Badges or Attributes: St. Peter, with the Keys;
St. paul, with a Sword ; St. Andrew, with a Crofs or Sal-
teer i St. James minor, with a Fuller's Pole X St. John,
with a Cup and a winged Serpent flying from it; St. far-
tbolomewtv, with a Knife; St. Philip, with a long Staff,
whoae upper End is form'd into a Crofs,; St. Thomas, with
a. Lance; St. Matthew, with a Hatchet; St. Matthias,
with a Battle-Ax; St. James major, with a Pilgrim's Staff
anda Gourd Bottle; St. SimNwon, with a Saw; and St. Zhad~
,mus, with a Club.
The Word poftle',     P, originally gnites,
delegated or fenr ; from the Verb nsti#M, mitto:
Senfe it occurs in Herodotus, and other prophane
-he  Hence, in the New Teflament, the Pen
to divers torts of Delegates; and to the twelvt
by way of Eminence.
In this Senfe, certain falfe Preachers of the (
tiently difputed Paul his Quality of ,popfle;
none but thofe who had Seen Jefus, and been W
his Aaqions, could be faid to be fent by him-
to thefe fophiftical bo!?ors, who had reduced the
of Galatia; he begins his Epifile to 'em with the
~aufl an Apofle, not of Men nor by .Man, but
Chrift and God the Father: By v.Which he fignifiec
had his Miffion immediately from God; and of co]
was a true Apoftie.
The name ipoJfle was alfo attributed to the ordinary
velling Miniflers of the Church-Thus St. Paua
the Epifile to the Romans, XVL. 7. Lays, Salute -4h
vicus and Junia, my Kinfmen and Fellow-Pri/foners,
ar~e of note among the Apoflles.
The Name p1oftile was alfo given to thofe fent by
Churches to carry their Alms to the Poor of other Churi
-This Ufage they borrowed from the Synagogues,
called thofe whom they Lent on this Meffage, by the f
La  me_   a n a   t  iL _   u ci n   or  ' .  JL I r1   _ _ -7   p jtal
q. d. Mifflion.-Thus St. Paul writing to the Philippijaú
tells 'em, that Epaphroditus their Apofile had minifired
his Wants, Chap. II. 2 5.
APOSTLE is alfo ufed fot a Perfon who firfi planted t
Chriflian Faith in any place.
Thus St. D.~ionylyus of Corinth is called the Sate
France; St. Xavier the Apo(tle of the Indies, Gc.-
In the .lay-indies, the Jefuit Miflionaries are alfo cal
AOnflep;. See MISSIONARY, 7C.
in forne Ages of the Church, the Pope was alfo dend
nated AX ofrie  See Sidoz. Afollin. Li b. VI. Ep. i.
alto roP E ann aO rSTULI -AL.
In the Greek Liturgy, APOsTLE is particularly ufed for the
Epiffles of St. Paul, printed in the Order wherein they are
to be read in Churches, thro' the Courfe of the Year.-
Another Book of the like kind, containing the Gofpels, it
call'd 'Fw4r4A0ov, Gofpel-The Apoftle, of late Days,
has alto contained the other canonical Epifiles; the Ads of
the Spofiles, and the Revelations. Hence it is alfo call'd;
A#is of] the  Apoflles, rines  ; that being the fir&
Book in it. See ACrs of the Apoflles.
APOSTLE is alfo ufed among the Jews, for a kinda
Officer anciently Lent into the Leveral Parts and Provincts
in their Jurifdiction, by way of Vifitor, or Commiffary; to
fee that the Laws were duly obferved, and to receive the
Monies colleaed for the Reparation of the Temple, and
the Tribute payable to the Romans-    The 7iheodofias
Code, Lib. XIV. De J7udeis, calls /pofloli, qvi ad exigen
dum aurum atque argentum a Patriarcha certo 7empore
diriguntur. The Jews call'd 'em  jln'?W, Schelihbi;
q. d. Envoys, Me1engers.
Julian the Apoflate remitted the Jews the Apoftole, As-,
5&An; that is, as he hirrfelf explains it, the Tribute they
had been accuflom'd to fend him.
Thefe Apofiles were a degree below the Officers of the
Synagogues call'd Patriarchs, and received their Commi-
fions from 'em.-Somne Authors obferve, that St. Paul
had bore this Office; and that 'tis this he alludes to in the
beginning of the Epifile to the Galatians: as if he hia
faid, Paul, no longer an  Apofle of the Synagogue, not
lent thereby to maintain the Law of Mofes, but now as
Apofile and Envoy of Jefus Chrifl, Cèc.-St. Jerom, tha
he does not believe that St. Paul had been an Apofle of
this kind ; yet imagines that he alludes thereto, in the PalE
r4- iu1 citedl.
-6-D J-&LGU
In the Arfenal of 2Bremen there are twelve large Fice
Cannon call'd the twelve Apofiles; on a Suppofition
the whole World muff be convinced, and acquiefce in
Preachings of fuch Aponfies.
thing that belongs to the Wboftles, or descends from
Thus we Lay the Apoflolical Age, Apoftolical Dc
Apoftolical Charader, Wc.--The Romanifis cal
Church, the Catholic and Apoftolic Church; and tb
propriate a Title to Rome, which anciently wash
common with it byfeveral other Churches. -
In the Primitive Church, the Appellation A-po
attributed to all Luch Churches as were founder
Apofiles i and even to the Bifhops ofthofe Church
ing the reputed Succeffors of the Apoftles.--Tl
confined to four; viz. Rome, Alexandria, Antiocsl
In After-times other Churches affumed the famn,
on account, principally, of the Conformity of their

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