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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

Antinomasy - arbor,   pp. 110-128 ff. PDF (18.5 MB)


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.n the Year of Chrift 1646,
of d; r the annual Motion of
PI
.,MOO-N. I
its fartheil iflance from the
he Circumference of the E-
e of theApfides, i' the retnote*1
iart of the Diameter.
So the Perigee of the Equant is the oppofite Point, or
the nearefd part of the Diameter.    I
The mean Apogee -of the Epicycle, is  a Point where the
Epicycle is cut above, by a right Line drawn from its
Centre, to the Centre of the Equant, or the Point of
the Epicycle moft remote from the Earth. See EpicY-
The Word is form'd of the Greek  zer, ab, from; and  9
or  cabl Earth-In the corrupt Latin, Apogee fometimes
fignifies a Grotto, or fubterraneous Vault.
APOGRAPH, APOGRAPrUM, a Copy or Tranfcript of
fome Book or Writing.  See Copy.
In this fenfe the Word flands oppofed to Autograph; as
a Copy to an Original. See AuTOGR APii.
It is form'd of ctm, ab, from, and  Slay, fribo, I write.
APOLLINARISTS, APOLLINARIANS, antient Here-
tics, who denied that Jefus Chrifi affumed true Flelh.
Apollinaris of Laodicea, their Leader, fancied I know
not what firange kind of Flefh, which he fuppofed to have
exifled from all Eternity.--He diftinguhilh'd between the
Soul of Chrift, and what the Greeks call iv4, Underjfand,
ivg and from this DifcinEion took occafion to affcrt, that
Chrifi affumed a Soul without its Underfianding, and that
this DefeE was fupplied by the Word: tho' fome of his
Followers held that Chrift had no Soul at all.
A4pollinaris further taught, that the Souls of Men were
propagated by other Souls, as well as their Bodies--7'e-
odoret charges him with confounding the Perfons of the
Godhead; and with giving into the Errors of Sabellins -
and Bafil accufes him  of abandoning the literal fenfe
of Scripture, and taking up wholly with the allegorical
fen re.
This Herefy was very fubtle; it was condemn'd in a
Synod at Alexandria, under Sr.Athbanajius, in the Year
362. It was Subdivided into feveral different H1erefies, the
chief whereof were the Polervians and the Antidicomaria-
nites. See ANTIDICOMARIANITE.
APOLLINARIAN Gades, in Antiquity, Ludi Apellinares,
were folemn Games held yearly by the Romvans in honour of
the God Aptollo. See GAME.
The Tradition goes, that at the firfl Celebration here-
of, they were fuddenly invaded by the Enemy; and
obliged to take to their Arms: upon which occafion a Cloud
of Darts and Arrows falling upon their Enemies, the Ro-
mans foon return'd Viaors to their Sports.
APOLOGETICAL, APOLOGETIC, Something faid, or
written by way of Excufe, or Apology for any Adion, or
Perfon. bee APOLOGY.
The Apologetic of Tertullian is a Work full of Strength
and Spirit; fuch as in all refpeas became the Charaaer of
that lather-        He there vindicates the Chriflians
from  all that had been objeaed to them, particularly
the aboiinable Crimes faid to be perpetrated at their
Meetings, and their want of Love and Fidelity to their
(Country. The Grounds of this laft Accufation, was their
refufing to take the accuflom'd Oaths, and fwear by the
tutelary Gods of the Ermpire MTertullian addrefres his
Apologetic to the Magiflrates of Roirie; the Emperor Seve-
r*ls being then abfent.
APOLOGUE, APGLOCus, amoral Fable; or a feign'd
Relation, intended to inform, and amend the Manners.
See FABLE.
Such are the Fables of Affos; whence, moral Fables are
ufually denominated f.fopic Fables.
Y5!L. SCaliger derives the Name rn r Aoyg, xa'ov, inafmuch
as the Apologue means oMething more than what at firet
fight it expreises.
Father de Colcqia makes it eential to the Xpologue, that
it contain what paW s among Brutes i and diifinguifhes it
from the Parable, by this, that the latter, tho' feign'd,
mht poffibly be true, which the former cannot; fince
1^els cannot fpeak., See IARABLE.
AP'OLCGY, APOLOGIA, Defence; a Difcourre orWri-
tinig-in vindication of a Perfon. See DEFENCE, VINDICA-
TION, UeC.
The Word is formn'd of the Creek  ao=wsy, I refite,
I repel witbh Words.
APONEUROSIS, among Anatomifts, the fpreading or
Expanfion of a Nerve, or Tendon, breadrh-wife;X in man-
ner of a Membrane. See NERVE and TEN roN.
It Sometimes alfo fignifies the cutting off a Nerve or Ten-
don-And in fome Writers we find it ufed for a Ten-
do t itelf. Sec TENDON.
A P O
The Word is compounded of the Greek an, ab , froit
and vsvgt;v, a Nerve.
APOPHLEGMATISMS, are Medicaments, chew'd,
in order to draw away Phlegm, and Humours from the
Head and Brain. See MASTIC ATORY.
Of this kind is Tobacco; which is as excellent as any,
abating that it fpoils the Teeth; and Sage has almoft the
fame Virtues without the fame Defets.
The Word comes from the Greek alD' and iAl)p.
APOPHYGE, AroPnYGEs, in Architeaure, that part
of a Column where it begins to fpring out of its Bafe, and
fhoot upwards. See COLUMN aied BASE.
The Apophyge, in its Original, was no more, than the
Ring or Ferril heretofore faflen'd at the Extremities of
wooden Pillars, to keep them from fplitting; which after-
wards was imitated in Stone-work. See ORDER.
The Word in its original Greek fignifies Flight ; whence
the French alfo call i: Efcape, Conge, Uc. See CONGE.
APOPHYSIS, in Anatomy, a Procefs or Protuberance
of a Bone; being a part eminent or jutting out beyond the
rei. See BONE, PROCESS, &5C.
Such are the Eminences of the (/ertebref, the Omoplate,
Thigh-lone, disc. See 'VERTEBRJE, OMOPLATE, SC.
APOPHIYSES Alammillares, are the Beginnings of the ol-
fac1ory Nerves; as far as the Os Cribrofumr, where they
divide into little Fibres, which pats thro thofe Bones, and
fpread themfelvfis throughout the upper part of the Nofe.
See OLFACTORY Nerve, NOSE, WC.
APOPHYsIS Mammillaris, or .aftoideus, is alfo one of
the external Eminences of the Os 'Petrofum. See PETRO-
SUM.
The Wo rd is Greek, and literally denotes a Produflioi
outweards.
APOPLEXY, in Medicine, a fudden Privation of all
the Senfes, and all the fenfible Motions of the Body, ex-
cepting that of the Heart and Lungs ; attended with
a great Depravation of the principal Faculties of the SouL
See SENSATION, MOTION, C.
It aiffers from a Carus, a Lethargy, and a Coma, in re-
gard that in thofe three Diflempers, the Stupor is not fo
profound, nor all Senfation quite deftroy'd. bee CA&US,
LETIIARGY, and COMA.
It differs from a Syncope, in that there is no fenfible
Pulfe in this laft; whereas in an Apoplexy, the Pulfe is
perceptible almoft till Death. See SYNCOPE.
It differs from an ELpilepfy, in regard all Motion is not
abolifh'd in that as in this : and it differs from the Palfys
inafmuch as the Paify is not attended with any Stupor, nor
does it deprive the Patient of Senfe and Perception. See
EPILEPSY and PALSY.
The Apoplexy may be occafion'd by an Interruption of
the PaMlige of the Blood towards the Brain; or by any
thing that hinders the Influx of the animal Spirits into the
Organs of Senfe, and the Parts of voluntary Motion: Some,-
times it is owing to an abundance of Phlegm, and fometimes
to a vifcid 'Pituira, wherewith the Brain is opprefs'd; as
is obfervable in Winter Apoplexies, and in thofe of old Peo-
ple. It Sometimes alto comes from too grofs a Lympha,
which flops up the Nerves; or a Plethora, which oppreffes
them; or Excrefcencies within-fide the Cranium, preffing
the Vefhels; or a Polypus, blocking up the Carotids, T&c.
See BR AIN.
In diff&ing Perfons dead hereof, clotted extravafated
Blood is ufually found in one or both Ventricles of the
Brain. See Philof 'Tranfad. N0 I7 ,, 313, tSc.
HijP!ocrates diflinguifhes two kinds of Apoplexies, the
one firong, the other weak; only differing in the greato;
or lefs Difficulty of Refpiration.
The more modern Authors dflinguifh Ajoplexi%, from
their Caufe, intoSavguineous and Pituitous - to which may
be added Lymp Iatic, Polypous, W$c.
The Fit is ufually preceded by a violent Pain in the
Head, Dimnets and Lofs of Sight or Memory: Somevim sr
by an univerfal Indolence i and fometimes by a Flux of pi-
tuitous Matter by the Nofe and Mouth  -It is attended
with a fnoaring and difficulty of breathing; Sometimes with
a Fever, rarely with a foaming at the Mouth, frequently
with a Sweat, Hemorrhoids, or Diarrhxa 3. and fO goes
off.
To prevent an Apoplexy, Wine and hard Labour are to
be avoided; no eating to excer% i nor no fleeping after Din-
ner: Exercife to be kept up, and Care and Chagrin to be
kept under.
Tocure an 1pcile'yY, Medicines muft be ufed that occa-
fion large Evacuations; and nothing of opiate or aftringent;
meddled withal --     uring the Fit, copious bleeding
in the Jugulars to be ufed, and the Patient laid on hiU
back; applying 1rong Volatiles to the Nofe; blow  v
Irong Sternutatorics, and rub the Temples with cepaih6
Mixtures-A      hot Iron may alto be apply'd talre
Vertex or Ccciputi an Epirtpdic to the Neck  tq Whih
Rih                    A


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