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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Antinomasy - arbor,   pp. 110-128 ff. PDF (18.5 MB)

Page 116

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fitliA exprets himfelf after the mant1ir of the Prophets,
whofe Style spfually fgrarive.
Of all tbeh  Objedions againit the Authority of this
Book, that feema the befi grounded which is draw" from
thofe Words in Cap ii. ver. X 5. Write to the Angel of the
Church of Thyatira: Thete was not, fay they, any Chri-
Mtan Church at T'hyatira at that time --- St. Epiphanius,
who grants 'em this Point, is forced to have recourfe to
the Prophetic Spiritn as if St. John had forefeen there
'would be a Church there in coutfe of time.
Some late Authors have made a good amendrtient tb Sr.
Xpiphanius's Anfwer: 'Tis probable, in the time of that
Father, the Catalogue of the Bifhopsj with other Adts,
'which fhew that there had been a Church eftablifh'd there
from the time of the Apofiles; might not be known. Gro-
rins adds, that tho there wis not, indeed, any Church of
Gentile Converts at T'hyalira when St. John wrote; yet
there was one of ye-ws, as there had been another at Tief
falonica before St. Paul preached there.
Several Orthodox Writers have reje&ed the Apocalypfe
as a Book which countenanced the Reveries of Cerinthus
touching the carnal Reign of Chrifi on Earth. See CE-
Tho Dionjfius Alexandrinus allow'd the Apocalypie for
an infpired Writing; yet he took it for the Work ot another
9ohn, bcfide St. John the Evangelifl; which he endeavours
to make appear from the Diverfity of Style. But we all
Snow how precarious the Arguments are, which are drawn
from the mere Cunfideration of Style-'Tis true, in molt
of the antient Greek Copies, both printed and manufcript,
we find the Name Yohn the Divine at the Head thereof,
but they who put this Title, meant no more thereby than
to denote the Apoflle St.ohn, whom the Greek Fathers call
the SDivine, by way of Eminence, to diflinguifh him from
the other Evangelitls. See EVANGELIST.
There have been feveral other Works publifhed under
the Title of 1pocalypfes-Sozomen mentions a Book ufsd
in the Churches of 'Taleftine, call'd the Ipocalypfe, or Re-
velation of St. Peter. He alfo mentions an Apocaly;pfe of
St. Pattl; which theCopbte retain to this day. Eujedius
alfo fpeaks of both thefe Apocalypfes-- St. Epitbanius
mentions an ApocalypJé of Adam: Niceplorus, of an Apo-
ealypfe of Ffdras: Gratian and Cedrenus, of an Apoca-
lypfe of .Mofes, another of St. I/Yemas, and another of St.
Porphyry, in his Life of Plotin, makes mention of the
apocalypfes or Revelations of Zoroajler, Zoftriav,, Nico-
tha'us, Allogenes, &c.
APOCHYLISMA, among Phyficians, Infpiflation; the
boiling and thickening of any Juice with Sugar and Honey,
into a kind of hard Confiftence.  See INSPISSATION,
APOCOPE, a Figure in Grammar, wherein the laft
Letter or Syllable of a Word is cut ofF  See FIGuRE and
The Word is derived from the Greek ixvr, d1w, to cut off -
which is form'd from the Prepofition cX>, and the Verb
x0iV70, I cut.
A like Retrenchment at the beginning of a Word is
call'd Aplaerejis. See APH sEiss.
an Officer appointed to carry or deliver the Meffages, Or-
ders, and Anfwers of a Prince- He afterwards became
his Chancellor, and kept the Seal. Iii the bafer Latin we
Sometimes meet with .4fecreta, Secretary, for Apocrifiry.
Zoz~inzus defines the Apocrifarius, Secretary for foreign
Affairs; being the fame with what Fopifcus in the Life of
Aurelian calls Notarius Secretorum.
The Title and Quality of pocrijary became at length
appropriated, as it were, to the Pope's Deputy or Agent,
who refided at Conflantinolle to receive the Pope's Orders,
and the Emperor's Anfwer-St. Gregory was Apocri-
fary of Pope Pelagirus, at the time when he compofed his
Morals on Yob.
The Apocrifary did the Office of the modern Nuntio's.
Sometimes, however, he had the Rank and Quality of
the Pope's Legate. See LEGATE.
The Herefy of the Monothelites, and afterwards that of
the Iconoclaftes, broke off the Cullom of having a Papal
Apocrifary at Conflantinople.
The Word is form'd from the Greek a7c'xvn5, R pon-
flim, Anfwer-Hence he is ufually call'd in Latin, Re-
APOCROUSTICS, Medicines intended to flop the
Flux of malignant Humours, to a part difeafed. See
They are u{'ually cold, afiringent, and confifding of large
Particles; wherein they differ from drawing Medicines,
which are iot, and confift of more fubtile parts. bee RIP x-
Ii XR.
The Wor tos derived frem lxj sp, pOO1, pe
APOCRYPHAL, fomething dubious; or
from an Uncertain Author* *hereon much credi
*Ihus we ltayi an A ocryPhat Book-, Pal~age, I
triearing, fuch as aii of fulppeaed Authority-
of Doarine, the Writings of Hereticks, Schifmati
h     teld Apocryphal.
([cffius obferves, that with regard to the ai
none are to be accounted Apocryphal, except fu
neither been admitted into the 3ynagogue, nor
fo as to be added to the Canon and read in pi
The Word is derived from the Greek enznxpvt
becau{e the Origin of fuch Books was unkno.7tw, or be
they conrtain'd fome Myfleries not fit to be known-
this reafon, the Books of the Sybils were antiently call'
cryphal1 as being committed to the Trult of the Dece
alone: and for the like reafon the Annals of the,
tians and Syrians were called by the fame Name. S&
Before the Sepo asit Verfion, the Books of the
Teflament were all Apocryphal in this fenfe-But in p
of time, the fenfe of the Word was changed, and
Books alone were call'd -pocryphal, which were of d
rul o..r i      ..p te lurruI'yf_
;tui or ultpeded i uth~tLI y I
In the original meaning of the Word, all the WritIng
depofited in the Temple were call'd Apocryphal; by reafon
they were kept fecret from the People.
When the Yews publifh'd their facred Books, they only
gave the " ppellations of Ca0onical and 7Divine to fuch a,
they thus made public  and fuch as were fill retain'd in
their Prchives, they call'd Apocryphal, for no other rea.
fon, but becaufe they were not public; fo that they mighi
be really Sacred and Divine, tho not promulged as fuch.
Thus, in refpeEt of the Bible, all Books were call'd
pocryphal, which were not inferred in the Ye'w{/h Cano-
of Scripture; and 'ris in this fenfe St. F.piphanis is to be
underilood, when he fays, That the Apocryphal Books are
not put in the Ark among the other infpireu Writings. See
There has been a great Difpute between the Romanigs
and the Reformed, about the Authority of thofe Books
now call'd, by the latter, Apocryphal               I as, 7udit, Tobi:,
Efdras, Maccabees, ec. the one having the Opinisiis of
many of the Primitive Fathers for their Vouchers, and the
others, the Tradition of their Church.
M. Simon contends, that they mufl have been read, In
(.._ree  _ eve  Ly me A__lUC5 rnein'cive. wu1.s;-.1vil
(yreekz, even by the aportles theini-ves; WnlcnU
from divers Pafages in their Writings-He adds,
Church receiv'd them with the other Books of 4
from the Hellenift ,7ews 5 and that if the Churche
lejfine never admitted them, 'twas not for their a(
them Apocryphal in the fenfe the Word is now u
becaufe they read none but what were writ in Hebt
To this we oppofe the Authority of a great nr
Ecclefiaflical Writers, particularly among the Gree
make a precife Diftindion between the Books no
Apocryphal, and thofe conrain'd in the 5ewiz Car
St. 7erom, in particular, is very full upon the He
even fpeaks of his Opinion as the common Opiniol
Church at that timre.
APODICTIICAL Argument, or Syllogifm, fig
clear, convincing Proof, or Demonfiration of a Thi
The Word is form'd of the Greek 0d7VT'1PotA,
ftrate, Ilbew clearly.
APO GEE, APOG.MUAM, in Afironomy, that Poi
Orbit of the Sun, or a Planet, which is furthefl
from the Earth. See ORBIT and EAR}TU.
The Apogee is a Point in the Heavens, at the I
of the Line of the Apfides; in which the Sun, or;
is at the greatef Diflance that it can be at, from th
in its whole Revolution, See Apsis, EARTHT, P
The oppofite Point hereto, is call'd the Perig
The antient Afironomers regarding the Earth
Centre of the Syflem; chiefly confider'd the Apc
Perigee: The Moderns, making the Sun the
change the Apogee and Perigee for Aphelion and
lion. See APHELION and PExRIazL1ON. See
The Apogee has a Motion; the Quantity of i
found by comparing two Obsfervations thereof ma
great diffance of time; converting the difference i
nutes, and dividing it by the number of Years
between the two Obfervations. The Quotient gi
annual Motion of the Afpogee-Thus, from at
vation made by Hipparchs in the Year before Cth
whereby the Sua's Atogea wast found 5, 30oOf 3

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