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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Antinomasy - arbor,   pp. 110-128 ff. PDF (18.5 MB)

Page 115

( I L5  ),
Idnce, 2i vlewing VenUS thro' a Teeficopd, 'i .nuch lefs
errure is to be  than fhr the Moon,  ier, or S-
turf, becaufe her Light is fo vivid and glaring -Which
Confideration does a little invalidate and diffurb M. Au-
s 2s's Proportion, as is 1hlewn by Dr. HAo0k, 'Phil. dTamzf.
Apertura Zabularum, in antient Law-Books, fignifies
the breaking open a Laft Will and TePtanint. See WILL
Apertura Feudi, denotes the lofs of a feudal Tenure, by
default of Iffue to him, to whom the Fead or Fee was firit
granted. See FEE, FEUD, TENURE, ,e.
APETALOUS, in Botany, fomething without Petala
or Leaves. See PETALA and LEAF.
The Word comes from the privative Particle e, and mtt-
Aor, Folium, a Leaf. See FLOWER, PLANT, SC.
APEX, the Vertex or Summet of any thing. See VER-
-rrx, APICES, 8ec.
APHERESIS, orAP ERE.sis, in Grammar, a Figure,
whereby fomething is taken away from the beginning of a
Word. See FIGURE and WORD.
Thus Ciconia, by Aph refs is wrote C'onia.
A like Retrenchment at the end of a Word is call'd Syn-
Cope or Apocope. See SYNCOPE and APOCOP E.
APHELION, or APiIELIUM, in Aftronomy, that Point
of the Earth's or a Planet's Orbit, in which it is the far-
thefi diftant from the Sun that it can be. See ORBIYT.
Thus a Planet being in A, (Tab. ASTRONOMY, fig. r.)
Iits utinof Diftance from the Sun S5 is faid to be in its
A4phelion. See PLANET, SUN, SC.
In the Syflem or Suppofition of the Sun's moving round
the Earth; the fame Point is called the Apogee. Sze
The A4phtelion hands oppofed to the Peribelion. See
The Apheliums of all the primary Planets are at refix
excepting that thofe Planets neareft the Sun, viz. .Miercury,
Venus, the Earth, and M1ars, being aaed upon by Yupiter
and Saturn, their Aphelizvms move a finall matter in Con-
fequentia with refpect to the fixed Stars, and this in the
fefquiplicate Ratio of the Didlance of thofe Planets from
the Sun.
Hence, if the A4phelium of M1ars move i 5 Minutes i>}
Coonfequentia, in refped 6f the fixed Stars in ioo Years;
the Apheliumes of the Earth, Venus, and Mercury, will
move in Ioo Years, I8 Min  36 Sec. II Min. a7 Sec. and
4 Min-. 29 Sec.
The Method of finding the place of the Aphelion, is by
obferving feveral of the great Digreffions of the Planet
from the Sun; till by two or three repeated Obfervations
it be found to remain at a hand --In the PhiloJtlhical
Y-ranfa/kions, NO I z8. we have a Geometrical Method of
finding the .Iphelia of the Planets, by Dr. Halley.
Kepler places the Aphelium of Saturn for the Year 1700,
in 28f. 31 . 44".' of Sagitarius: DJe la Hire, in 29g. 14'. 41t.
-The Aphelium of Jupiter in 80. IO'. 4c//. of Libra:
De la Hire in IOU. I 7'. 14' .-The  Aphelium of Mars
in of. 5I. 2 9". of Virgo; De la Hire in oQ. 5'. 2 5".-
The Aphelium of the Earth in 8f. 25'. 3011. of Cancer-
The Aphelium of Venus in 30. 24'. 277'. of Aquarius; I.)e
la Hire in 6Q. 56. i0X".--And the Aphelium of Mercury
in 150 .441. 2 9' .of Sagitarius; D)e ia Hire in I 3Q.'. I 4.
The annual Motion, according to Kepler, of the Aphe-
ium of Saturn is I'. 1 it". of .7upiter, 47 '. of Alars, r'I 7 .
of the Earth--of Venus, I '. I 8". and of Mercury I . 4 5".
According to De la Hire, that of Saturn is 1'. 22". of.7u-
piter I'. 34". of Mars I'. 7". of the Earth--of Venus
1. 2,6". and of fMercury I'. Sq".
The Word comes from the Greek >ire, from, and NA(oc,
APHONY, from the privative Particle do and oA, Vox,
Voice; implies a loTh of Speech, or Voice. See VOICE,
APHORISM, a Maxim, general Rule, or Principle of
a Science ; or a brief Sentence, comprehending a great
deal of Matter in a few Words. See MAXIM, E&C.
The Term is chiefly ufed in Medicine and Law.---
Thus we fay the 4phorifas of Hxefocrates, of Santlorius,
of !oerhaave, &c.-Afhorifas of the Civil Law, tEc
The Word comes from the Greek dito       of   J
feparo, feligo, I feparate, I chufe, q. d. choice, or fcleal
Sentences. See SENTtNCE, AxIoM, SC.
mention'd by the Antients; fuppofed to be the Spume, or
the lighteft and fubtileif Part thereof, emerging to the top.
aSee NITxE.
Come mtdern NaturaliAs rather take the antietit Ajhro-
nitre to have been a Native Salt-Petre - now call'd Salt-
T'etre of the Rock. See SALT-PETRE.
FThe Word is compounded of the Greek cap, vroth, and
APHTIIH, in Medicine, lttle Ulcers or viniploe Fiif nß
in'the Mouth, the Palate, Gumt, at the Root of the Tongue,
Ac. See ULCER, ec.
Sucking Children are particularly fiubjea to thefe ph-
the, when either the Nurfe's Milk is corrupted or the
Child's Stomach becomes unfit for Digeflion: for hi. thdfe
cafes, the Iharp acrimonious parts of the'Milk rsifnig up,
eafily exulcerate thofe tender and delicate parts.
There are Come of thefe /phtha? white, others red, o-
thers livid and blackilh :  The white and red are the leak
dangerous, and the moil eafily cured; the livid and black
often prove mortal.
When they happen in grown Perfons, they are owing to
thin, ferous, and fharp Hiumours returned from the feveral
parts of the Nody to tile Mouth.
A Liniment of Alel Rofatum and Oil of Vitriol, is o-
feem'd a good Remedy for the Aphbthx.
The Word feerns derived fr.m the Greek a,4 to cor-
rupt; or from -ii    accendo, I ki ndle. -
Heretics, fworn Enemies df the 'ouncil of Chalcedon.
They arofe among the Eutychians, and made their firil
appearance in the Year 5s5. See'EUTYCIIIAN.
-The Word is deiived from the Greekf An  :'J, incorrup-
tible, and dada I judge; anid was given them, becaufe
they imagined the " ody of Jofus (Chriti was incorruptible
and impaffible, and not capable of Death.
APIARY, a Bee-Houlfe; a Place or Court where Bees
are kept.
The Word comes from the Latin, /pis, a Bee.
The Apiary 1hould be fcreen'd from high Winds on every
fide, either naturally or artificially; and well defended from
Poultry, Usc. whofe Dung is offenrive to Bees.
APICES, in Botany,    little Knobs growing on the
Tops of the Stamina, in the middle of Flowers. See
They are commonly of a dark, purplifh Colour.-By
the Microfcope they haze been difcover'd to be, as it werej
a fort of Capfule feminales, or Seed-VefcIls, containing in
them fmall globular, and often oval Particles of various
Colours, and exquifirely formed; called the Farina Faecuz-
What the Ufes of thefe are, is not entirely agreed: Some
have gueffcd them to be a kind of male Sperm which
falling down into the Flower, fecundates and ripens the
Seed. See further under the Article Generation OfPL A N a S.
The Word is Latin; being the Nominative plural of
A4pex, the Top or ummet of any thing.
APOBATERION, among the Ancients, fignified a
farewell Speech, or Poem ; occafion'd by a Perfon s depar-
ture out of his own Country, or fome other place where he
had been kindly received, and entertained.
Such is that of iAneas to Ilelenus and Andromache, En.
Lib. 11 .-  The Apobaterion lands oppoUed t the Epi;
baterion. See EPIBATERION.
APOCALYPSE, Apocalypfs, q. d. Revelation; the
Same of the laft Book in the Canon of Scripture. Sea
The Ipocaly.pJe contains Difcoveries, or Revelations re-
lating to many important Myfleries of Chriftian Faith;
made to the Apoflile St.John, in the lile of Pathmos, during
his Banifhnment there under the Perfecution of !Domitian.
See REVELATION.         I
The Word is form'd of the Greek a~mywxAuziws I reveal,
I difcover.
This, of all the Books of the New Teflament, is that,
about which the antient Fathers, and the Prazice of theo
Church, were the mof+ and the longefi divided-St. 7e-
rom relates, that the Greek Church doubted of its Authen-
ticknefs even in his Days: St. safil and Gregory Nazian-
zen abfolutely rejeff it, and the Council of Laodicea nevei
mention it in their Canon of the Sacred Writings.
Some attributed it to the Heretic Ccrinthus ; and others
to another John, D-fciple of Sr. John -f Dionyfius 4ex-
andrinus cenfures it as written in bad Grcek, and even finds
Solecifms and Barbarifms in it, abundance: tro he allows
it to contain a myflic fenfe, which he fays he admires
even wfiere he does not underfiand.
Cn the other hand, St Juftin, Irenmes, and St. Anvguin,
make no doubt of its being Canonical. The third Council
of Carthage, held in -97, placed it in the Canon of' the
Ncw Tefiament; and the Churches both of the .Eaj and
We/I have acknowledged it ever fince.
Th e -1ogi4ns are reprefented by Ecclefiaflical' Writers#
as great Declaimers againfi the  npcaqlypie, many of the
Flights whereof they turn'd into Ridicule ; particularly the
Vifions of the feven Trumpets; the four Angels bound Ot
the River Eiphrates, Lcc --St. EpiPawius defends it
againft them : The Book, he obierves, is not a mere Hi-
hiory, but a Prophecy; fio that it is no wonder the A uthot

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