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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

Antinomasy - arbor,   pp. 110-128 ff. PDF (18.5 MB)


Page 114


,( 1"4 )
AbR1S'rVt, AoRIsT, a Tenfe in the Qrevel Qrp-
tnar, anfiwering to the Prater-perfca of he Ja-'in and
iElgligb. Sce TEiNSE and GREit.-
As, for inflance, I lov'd your-Thereeis have two
;,4rfus's ; the Latins, none. See PRETER aT.
AORTA, in Anatomy, an Artery, which arifes imme-
aiately out of the left Ventricle ofrthe Heart; and is di-
fiributed thence thro' all Parts of the Body. See ARTERY
and H EAJT.
The Aorta is otherwile called' the great Artery ; as be-
ing the Trunk, out of which the other Arteries all fpring ;
and the great Conduit or Canal whereby the Blood is con-
vey'd throughout the Body. See BLcOD and CtPLCULA-
r ION.
The Word is form'd of the Greek Fin, which fignifies
a VFUJI, (heft, &c.   The Aorta is divided into two
grand T'runks, cali'd the Ifseeding and fDefreHa'ing ; Aorta,
fce2dezS~ arid d¢eficen~des. See ASCENDING an4dD;scEND-
ING.
Offifications, or PetrifaEions of the Coats of the Aorta
at its rire from the Heart, are fo frequent, that fome think
it a conflant ('afe.-Mr. Cooper, however, has an exprefs
Pifcourfe to fhcw that whenever fuch Oflification happens in
Man, it is a Difeafe, and incommodes the Part in the due
Execution of its Office. Of this he gives us feveral In-
flances; one, in which an Intermiflion of Pulfe was pro-
duced; in another, a Coldnefs of the Extremes with a
Gangrene, &-c. Phil. !rranfaj. Nf z99.
AONID ES, in Mythology. See MUSE.
APAGM A, a Term u&ed by formo Writers in Chirurgery,
for the tbrufling of a Bone or other Part out of its proper
place. See DISLOCAT ION.
APAGOGICAL Demconflration, is fuch as does not
prove the thing direcIly, but frew. s the impoffibility and
Abfurdity which arifes fr-m denying it. See bEMONSTRA-
T I U N.
Hence it is alfo call'd, Redugieo ad imnpofflbile, or ad
ebfwdum. See REDUCTION and ABSURPUM.
APANNAGE, AFENNAGE, or APPANNAGE. See
At' ANAGE.
APELLlT2E, Hereticks in the Primitive Church, who
taught that Chrifi left his Body diaolved in the Air; and
fo afcended into Heaven without it.
APARTMENT, a Portion of a large HouFe, wherein
a Perfon may lodge feparately i having all the. Convenien-
cies requifite to make a compleat Habitation. See HOUSE,
A compleat Apartment mufl conrifl at leaft of a Cham-
ber, an Antichamber, and a Cabinet or Wardrobe. See
CHAMBLER, ANTICHIAMBER, SC.
The Word comes from the Latin 2lpartirnentzirn, of the
Verb partiri, to divide.
APATHY, a moral Inierfibility; or a Privation Or all
Paffion, all Motion, or Perturbation of Mind. See PAS-
SION.
The Stoirks affeaed an entire Apathy: their wife Man
was to enjoy a perfed Calmnefs or Tranquillity of Mind,
incapable of being ruffled, and above the reach of any
Senfe either of Pleafure or Pain. See SToiciis, PLEA-
SURE and PAI N.
The Word is form'd of the privative Particle c, and rot-
Ocr, Paffion.
In the firil Ages of the Church the Chriflians adopted
the Term Apathy, to exprefs a Contempt of all earthly
Concerns ; a State of Mortification, fuch as the Gofpel
prefcribes. And hence we find the Word often ufed among
the devouter Writers : Clemens Alexandrinus, in particular,
brought it exceedingly in vogue; thinking hereby to draw
the Philofophers to Christianity, who afpired after fuch a
fublime pitch of Virtue.
Quietifnm, is only Apathy difguitcd under the appearance
of Devotion. See QUIETISM,
APATURTA, in Antiquity, Feafis celebrated by the
A.thenians in honour of Racchbs. See FEAST.
The Word is derived from the Greek X Ein, Fraud.
It is faid to have been inflituted in memory of a fraudu-
lent Viaory, obtain'd by Melanthus King of Athens, over
Xanth?!s, King of Beotia, in a fingle Combat, which they
agreed upon, to put an end to a Debate between 'em rela-
ting to the Frontiers of their Countries. --.--Hence !Bu-
dzus calls it Feftu6m f~eceptionis, the Feafi of Deceit.
This Feaft lafled four Days: The firff Day, thofe of
the fame Tribe made merry together; and this they call'd
Zqi.7   The fecond Day, which they call'd 'AvapP0,0
they facrificed to 7uipiter and Minerva. The third Day,
which they call'd KueiZin, fuch of their young Men and
Maids as were of Age, were admitted into their Tribes.
The fourth Day they call'd 'Esw'3JhL.
Other Authors give a different Etymology of this Feaft,
rom what we have now related: They tell us, that the
young At/ex2ians were not admitted into the Tribes on the
AP E
&I r   I
third Day, till their Fathers had firfi fwore ti
tbeir own Children; and that till that time ti
pofed, in fome ineafure, to be -without Fat
whence the Feaic, fay they, took it Name.
Xenophon, on the other hand, informs us, t
tions and Friends met on this occafion, and jo
Fathers of the young People who were to be
the Tribesi and that from this Aftembly the
hme: that in 'A=0'ea, the a far from beir
is a Conjunlive, and fignifies the fame thing
gether.
APEPSY, APEPsIA, in Medicine, a want
See DICESTION.
Apepfia, is a Defea in the Stomach, which
Alilment taken in from affording a proper Chy
ing the Blood and nourifhing the Body. See
MACH, CHIYLE, BLOOO, NUTRITION, EcC.
The Word is form'd from  the privative Pa
7A'mW, coquo, I boil, or conco2t.
APERIENS, or Aterient, or 1peritive,
See AP EFAIENT.
The Word is Latin; being the Participle
Aterire, to open; q. d. opening.
Crocus Martis APERIENS, opening Safron
Preparation of Iron-Plates or Filings, made
them to t'e Rain or Dew, till they contraa a
is the Medicine required. See CRoCus and
alto AIR, Uc.-It is a good 4perient.
APERIENS Palpebram Reflus, in Anatomy
which rifing in the Orbit of the Eye, near to
the Optic Nerve; paffes over the artollent b
Eye, and is at lalt inferted into the whole fu
the upper Eye-lid, which it ferves to open.
PALPEBBR A.
APERIENTS, or APERITIVE Medicines,
open the obflruaed Paffages of the fmall Vehfle
Pores; and by that means promote a due Circ
contained Juices.  See OrsTRUCTION,
GLAND, CIRCULATION, SèC.
Aperitnts, then, coincide with Deobflruei
(B ST LUENT.
The five ieler Aeriept, or opening Seec
Madder, Eryngo, Capers and Cammock.-The
openAng       - ar  i   Ap I CIv
and Butcher's Broom.
A U P1L 'rIfNLX7 Un AIL!  úrektLq-_ -,P ALS n r
Building; as Doors, Windows, Stair-cafes, Chimneys, Out
lets and Inlets for Light, Smoke, £Wc. See BUILDINC.
See alfo Door, WINDOW, SèC.
The Apertions Ibould be as few as may be; it being a
Rule that all Openings are Weakenings.
APERTURE, APERTURA, the Opening of any thing
or a Hole, Cleft, or vacant Place in fome otherwife folid
or continuous Subjedt. See OPENING.
The Word comes from the Latin APertura, of Aperire
to open.
In Geometry, Aperture Is u{ed for the Space left betweet
two Lines which mutually incline towards each other ti
form an Angle, See ANGLE.
In Optics, Aperture is the Hole next the Obje&-Glaf
of a Telef ope, or Microfcope i thro' which the L ight aim
Image of the Objea come into the Tube, and are thence
carried to the Eye. See OJEcT-GLTss.
APER TRE s alfo underftood of the Part of the Obje&i
Glafs itfelf, which covers the former, and which is left per
vious to the Rays. See TELESCOP E.
A great deal depends on having a juai Aperture. -
To find it experimentally; apply feveral Circles of black
fmutted Paper, each bigger than other, upon the Fact
of the Glafs, from the Magnitude of a Pea to the who4
Extent of the Glafss; and with each of thefe, feparately
view feveral difiant Objedfs; as the Moon, Stars, 5
That thro' which they appear the mofi diflincily, is to Wi
nitch'd upon.                                 I
M-. Auzout affirms, that he found that the Ape
Telefcopes ought to be nearly in. the fubduplica
of their Lengths: But Hfijgens, who firyl in
the life of Apertures, alures us he found by ex
that the Aperture of an Objea-Glafs, Egr. of 3(
to be determined by this proportion,: as 30 to 3,
as io to I, fo is the Root of the Diflance of the,
any Glafs multiply'd by 30, to its Aperture: and
Diflances of the Eye-Glaffes are to be proportion;
Apertures.
A  Iable of Apertures for Telefcopes of various
cac. See under the Article TELESCOPE.
The greater or lets Aperture of an Obje&-Glaf
be noted, does not increafe or diminifh the vifible
the Obje; i all that is effedled by this, is the ad
of morepor lets Rays, and confequently the more
obfcure Appearance of the Obje&.
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