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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Antinomasy - arbor,   pp. 110-128 ff. PDF (18.5 MB)

Page 112

( Ii2Z.,)
Again, as the Horizon of any place is 9o0 difiant from
the Zgnh thereof; .~tipodes have the fame Horizon. Set
:HiOIZoN.-And hence, whten the Sun rifes to one, he
ets to the other. See. RISING and SETTING.
. . The Word comes from the Greek  l,, againfi, and 'rft,
6IG-, a Foot.
.Tlato is faid to have firft flarted the Notion of An-
tipodes; and likewife to have given them the Name:
As he conceiv'd the Earth to be of a fpherical Figure, it
was eafy for him to infer that there muft be Antipodes.
Many of the Antients, and particularly La.lantius and
Ayu7rflin, laugh'd at the Notion.
The latter of thofe Fathers is out of his wits to think
how Men and Trees Ihould hang pendulous in the Air,
their Feet uppermoff; as they muft do in the other Hemi-
And if we may believe Aventine, Z'oniface Archbilhop
of Alentz and Legate of Pope Zachary, in the eighth Cen-
tury, declared a Bilhop of that Time, called Virgilius, a
Heretick, for maintaining that there was fuch a thing as
But this Piece of Hiftory is controverted by the Authors
of the Mern. de 'revoux; having been made ufe of, it
feemns, by fome Perfons, to fhew that the Church has been
miflaken in its Decifions-The only Account extant of
the matter, upon which the Tradition is founded, is a Let-
ter of Pope Zachary to Boniface ; wherein he fays, " If it
be proved that he maintain that there is another World,
" and other Men under the Earth; another Sun, and an-
" other- Moon; expel him the Church, in a Council; after
firn1 divevring him of the Prieflhood, &.c." The Au-
thors above-cited endeavour to prove that this Thteatening
was never executed; and that Boniface and Virgilils at-
terwards lived together in good Underflanding; and that
Virgilius was even canonized by the fame Pope. Mem. de
7'rev. an r708.
They further affert, that were the Story true; the Pope
had done nothing contrary to Truth and Equity: in re-
gard the Notion of Antijodes was very different in thofe
Jays, from what it is now  " For befides the Demonfira-
tions of the Mathematicians, fay they, the Philofophers
i too added their Conjedures; and aferted that the Sea
made two great Circles around the Earth, which divided
" it into four parts 5 that the vail Extent of this Ocean,
" and the burning Heats of the torrid Zone, prevented any
Communication between thofe four parts of the Earth,
Co that Men could not be of the fame Kind, nor proceed
" from the fame Original: and this," fay cur Authors,
" was what was meant by the Word Antipodes in thofe
As to the Sentiments of the Primitive Chriflians with
regard to xntipodes; 5ome, rather than admit the Conclu-
fions of the Philofophers, abfolutely denied the whole, even
the Demonstrations of the Geometricians relating to the
Sphericity of the Earth: which is Laftantius's way, Injlit.
kb. iii. C. :4. Others only call'd in queftion the Conjec-
tures of the Philofophers: which is St. Auuifin's Method,
de Civit. Dei, lib. xvi. c. 9.  After putting the (ue-
flion, whether there ever were Nations of Cyclopes, or Pig-
mies, or of People whofe Feet flood outward, Ec. he
comes to the point of Antipodes, and asks, " whether the
" lower part ot our Earth be inhabited by Antipodes"-
He made no doubt of the Earth's being round, nor of
there being a part diametrically oppofite to ours ; but only
difputes its being really inhabited. And the Confidera-
tions' he fuggefts for that purpofe are jufi enough: As,
That they who aflerted Antipodes, had no Hiflory for it;
That the lower part of the Earth may be cover'd with Wa-
ter; and that to place Antipodes there, of a different Ori-
gin from us, (as mufd have been the Opinion of the An-
tients, fince they thought it impoffible to go from our
World to theirs;) is to contradi& Scripture, which teaches
that the whole Race defcended from one Man-Such is
the Sentiment of that Critic.
It may be added, that the Chriflian Fathers were not
the only Perfonis who difputed the Truth of Antipodes.
Lucretius had done it before them at the end of his firft
Book, v. Io, 63, &c. See alfo Plutarch, lib. de Facie in
Orbe Lune'; and Pliny, who refutes the Opinion, lib. ii.
c., 6 5.
ANTIPTOSIS, a Figure in Grammar, whereby one
Cafe is put for another. See CASE.
The Word comes from the Greek pv~?, pro, and ar7Q07f,
ANTIQUARY, ANwriquARIiUs, a Perron who fludies
and fearches after Monuments and Remains of the A-n-
tients; as, old Medals, old Books, old Statues, Sculptures,
and Infcri ptions, and, in general, all curious Pieces that
may afford any light into Antiquity. See ANTIUITY.
See alfo MoNtIMENWr, MxbDAt INSCRi
Fotmerly there were feveral other kindi
The Librarii, or Copifts, i. e. thofe who t
legible Charaders what had been before,
were called by this Name. See LIBRAR
alfo denominated Calligrapti.
In the chief Cities ot Greece and Italy,
Perfons of Diffinrion, called Antiquaries,
it was to fhew Strangers the Antiquities
explain the antient Infiriptions, and to gii
aflifiance they could in this way of Learnii
This was doubtlefs a very curious and ul
and might well deferve to be re-eftablifh'd
calls thefe A4ntiquaries 'Estns; i the Sica
or grown out of date, or ufe. See OBSOLE
ANTIQUE, ANTIQUUS, fomething tha
The Term is chiefly ufed by Architefs,
Painters; who apply it to fuch pieces
Sculpture, Painting, £ec. as were made at
t~e Arts were in their greatef perfe~ion,
tient Greeks and Romans, viz. from the A
the Great to the time of the Emperor Phb
became over-run by the Goths and Vandals.
In this fenfe the Word fiands oppofed t
Thus we fay, an antique Building, or a Building aJi
the Antique; an antique Bufl, or Bas Relievo; the 4
tique Manner, Tafle, &;c.
ANTIQU E is fometimes even contradiflinguifh'd from 4
tient, which denotes a leffer degree of Antiquity, wv
the Art was not in its utmofi Purity:  Thus, antique J
chitcaure is frequently diffinguiffi'd from antient Arc
teaure. See ARC11ITECTURE.
Some Writers ufe the Compound Intiquo-modern, in
fped of old Gothic Churches and other Buildings; to
flinguifh there from thofe of the Greeks and Romans.
ANTIQUITY, ANTIOQITAs, antient Days; or t
Times palt long ago. See AGE, TIME, ANTIqUIE, A
Thus we fay, the Heroes of Antiquity, the Marks
A4ntiquity, bLc.
ANTIQUITY is alfo ufed in refpec& of the Remains,
Monuments of the Antients. See MONUMENT, RAMAII
Thus we Cay, the Antiquities of Greece, the  e'zviJbh
tiquities, Roman Antiquities, &c.-  The CGineft a
ininite Admirers of Antiquity.
ANTISCII, or ANTOECI, in Geography, the Peo1
who inhabit on different fides of the Equator X and who,
confequence, at Noon, have their Shadows projeaed opp
fite ways. See SHADOW.
The People of the North are Antifcii to thofe of ti
South; the one projeafing their Shadows, at Noon, towar
the North Pole, and the others towards the South Pole.
Anti/cii are frequently confounded with 4ntweci, wi
inhabiting oppofite fides of the Equator, have the fame ]
levation of Vole. See ANTOECI.
The 4ntifcii fand contradiffinguiilh'd from 5
ANTISCII are fometimes alfo ufed among Ai
two Points of the Heavens equally difiant ftc
pics-Thus the Signs Leo and aTurus are he]
each other.
The Word comes from the Greek eve}, agaii
ANTISCORBUTICKS, Remedies againfi
or Scurvy. See SCORBUTUS. See alfo DETE
ANTI-SIGMA, a Mark in the antient Wr
the Order of the Verfes is to be changed.
ANTISPASTUS, in the antient Poetry, a F
having the firft Syllable Ihort, the fecond and
and the fourth 1hort. See FOOT and VERSE.
ANTISTITIUM, a Term ufed. in antiei
for a Nonaftery. See MONASTERY.
ANTISTROPHE, a Figure in Grammar,?
Terms or Things mutually dependent one on
reciprocally converted. See FIGURE and CON'
-As, if one fhould fay, the Mafter of the *5
the Servant of the Mafter.
ANTISTROPHE was alfo a kind of Dance it
the Antients; wherein they ftepped forneti
Right, and Sometimes to the Left, ftll do
Turns or Converfions. See DANCE.
The Motion towards the Left, they called
from 'nfl, againfi, and stop  of rrir I turn.
, 1E  -HI   ence

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