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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Analecta - antimony,   pp. 83-109 PDF (20.2 MB)

Page 109

(109  )
Writs tofuch as take the Duties of Toll, &ic.  See S$zt-
No Lands are to be accompted ancient Demsfne, but fuch
aswarm held in Soccage. See MONSTRAVER.UNT.
ANTIHECTICKS, A N Tll EC TIC A, Remedies againri
KefficalDiforders. See HCTIC.
ANTIIIECTICuM    Poterii, in Pharmacy, a celebrated
Chymical Preparation, made of equal quantities or Tin,
and chalybeated Regulus of Antimony, by melting 'em in
a large Crucible, and putting to them, by little and little,
three times the quantity of Nitre: the Detonation being o-
ver, the whole is wafh'd with warm Water till no faltnefs
It is a very penetrating Medicine, making way into the
minuteft Paffages, and fMarching even the nervous Cells;
whence its ufe in Heffic D)iforders, from which it derives
the Name. See H.ECTIC.
It is applied to good purpofe in Heavineffes of the Head,
Giddines, and Dimnefs of Sight, whence proceed Apo-
plexies and Epilepfies; And in all AfTfeions and Foul-
neffies of the Vifcera of the lower Belly is reckoned inferior
to nothing. Thus it obtains in the Jaundice, Dropfies, and
all kind of Cachexies. Dr. 0iincy adds, that there is fcarce
a Preparation in the Chymical Pharmacy of greater efficacy
inmoil obflinate chronick Diflempers.     I
ANTILOGARITHM, is the Complement of the Loga-
rithm of a Sine, Tangent or Secant ; or the Difference of
that Logarithm, from the Logarithm of ninety Degrees.
ANTILOGY, ANTILOGIA, a Contradiaion between
two Expreflions or Packages in an Author.  See CONTRA-.
7irinus has publiihed a large Index of the feeming A.n-
tilogies in the Bible; i. e. of Texts which apparently con-
tradid each other, but which are explained and reconciled
by him, in his Comments on the Bible-   A Afaltefe of
the Oratory in Italy, has attempted the like ; but has done
little more than rehearfe what occurs of that kind in the
principal Commentators.
The Word is Greek, q'vAOt~e, q. d. Contrary Saying.
ANTIMENSIA, a kind of Confecrated Table-Cloth, cc-
callonally ufed in the Greek Church, in lieu of a proper Al-
tar. See ALTAR.
F. Gear obferves, that in regard the Greeks have but few
confecrated Churches ; and that consecrated Altars are not
things eafy to be removed : That Church has for many Ages
9p nf certanl cnnferrareA Stuffs or I Innens calI'd
Antimenfia, to ferve the purpofes thereof.
ANTIMONARCHI{LAL, Something that opFofes or
rands againri Monarchy, or Kingly Government. See Mo-
AntinlofllrchFical is frequently ufed in the Senfe of Re-
publican.  See REP U BL IC.
ANTIMO>ILALS, in Medicine, Preparations of Anti-
mony; -or Remedies whereof Antimony is the Bafis, or
principal Ingredient. See ANTIMONY.
An7timonials are chiefly of an emetic tendency i tho'
they may be fo qualified as to become either Cathartic, or
Diaphoretic, or even only Alterative. See E ai ETIC, CA-
Dr. ,Quincy alfures, that there are no Medicines in Phar-
macy to be compared wiah thefe in Maniacal Affeaior.s:
for that there are noEmetics or Cathartics of anyotherTribe
that are (rong enough for fuch Patients, unlefs in an Over-
dofe, which might be dangerous See MANNIA.
An Antimonial Cup, made either of Glafs of Antimony,
or of Antimony prepared with Salt-petre, tho' a Subftance
indilfoluble by the Stomach, will give a fProng Cathartic,
or Emetic Quality to any Liquor poured\into it 5 without
any diminution of its own weight.
ANTIMONY, ANTIMONIUM, in Natural Hiflory, a
Mineral Subilance, of a Metalline Nature ; having all the
feeming Characaers of a real Metal, excepting Malleability.
Antimony is what we properly call a Semi-Metal; be.
ing a Foffl Glebe, compofe offome undete rmined Metal
combined with a flulpburous and ftony Subitance. See SE-
It is found in Mines of all Metals; but chiefly thofe
of Silver and Lead: That in Gold Mines is ufually held
the bel     -It has alfo his own Mines ; particularly in
JrIuinary, lTra'JY1Vania, and Germany, and feveral Pro
vinces of France.
Antimony is found in Clods or Stones of feveral fizes,
bearing a near refemblance to black Lead; only that it is
lighter and harder : whence alfo it is called Marca te oJ
Lead; sod its metalline part fuppofed to be of that Spe-
cies. See LEAD.
Its Texture is fomewhat particular, being full of little hi-
ning Veins or Threads, like Needles; brittle as Glafs_
Irmetimes there are Veins of a red or golden Colour inter.
mixed, which is called Malef Antimony; that wit]out 'efn
being denominated Female--It fufes in the Fire, tho'
with fome difficulty; and diffolves more eafily in Water.
When dug out of the Earth, it is put into large Cruc bles,
fufed by a' violent Fire, and then poured into Cones, or An-
timonial Horns i which makes the common or crude An7ti-
rwony of the Shops,the Apex whereof is always the befi and
pureft part, as the Bafis or broadeft part is the foulef.
Antimony is fuppofed by many oftheChymifts to contain
the feminal Principles of all kind of Bodies; and accordingly
the Charader whereby it is denoted in their Writings, is the
fame with the C haracterof the Earth; to denote that A2n-
timony is a kind of Microcofm.  See CHA:RACTER   and
The Ufes of Antimony are very Numerous, 'and Impor-
tant-It is a common Ingredient in Specula, or burning
( oncaves, ferving to give them a finer Poliflh-It makes a
Part in Bell-Metal ; and renders the Sound more clear-
It is mingled with Tin to make it more hard, white, and
founding;i and with Lead, in the cafling of Printer's Let-'
ters, to render them more fmooth and firm. It is a general
Help in the melting of Metals, and efpecially in cafting of
Antimony is the StIbi?,im of the Antients i by the Greeks
called 5-ifyu'-The reafon of its modern Denomination is
ufually referr'd to Bf/il Valentine, a German Monk, who ha-
ving thrown fome of it to the HcI-gs, obferv'd that after
purging them violently, they immediately grew fat upon
it. This made him think that by giving his Fellow-Monks
a like Dofe, they would be the better for it. The Expe-
riment however Succeeded fo ill, that they all died of it 5
and the Medicine thenceforward was called Anti yony,
q. d. Anti-Monk.
Its fingular Properties and Effeds have occafion'd it va-
rious other Denominations; as Proteus, by reafon of its va-
rious forms and appearances, Lupus, Devorator, Saturn
of the Philofophers, Balneum Solis, Lavacrum Leprorum,
&c. all chiefly refpeffing its Faculty of destroying, and
diffipating whatever Metals are fufed along with it, all
except Gold; whence its great Ufe in reolning and purify-
Antimony, is particularly ufed in Pharmacy, under va-
rious Forms, and with various Intentions-Its medicinal
Virtue is fuppofed to arife from the fulphurous part in its
Compofition, which being diffolved by any proper Men-
ftruum, fets at liberty an aaive volatile Salt, or other un-
known Principle, to which the Operation is chiefly owing.
Before the XIVth Century, 4Atimony had no place in
Medicine; otherwife than as an Ingredient in fome Cofme-
ticks: but about that time, Bafil Valentine having found a
method of preparing, and correding the dangerous Quali-
tiesof its Sulphur,publiflied a Book, entitled Currus 7irium-
phalis Antimonii, wherein he maintained it a fure Remedy
for all Difeafes-But, in fpight of all he could fay in its
behalf, tho' confirmed by Experience, Antimony remained
in a general Neglea, upwards of IOo Years ; till about
the beginning of the XVlth Century, when it was brought
into Vogue by Paracelfus-The Parliament of Paris,
immediately upon this Refloration, condemned the ufXs of
it in form; and a Phyfician named Befi2ier, having been
found delinquent herein, was excluded the Faculty.  It
feems, a deal of Mifehief had been done by it, for want of
knowing the proper ways of Application; fo that the Ar-
ret of Parliament represents it as a mere Poifon-
Several learned Men complained of fo fevere and unjufi
a Prohibition ; and by a Courfe of happy Experiments
brought it into Elleem again : whence in fpight of all the
Invedlives made againfl Antimony, by divers Authors, it was
at length replac~d, in the Year I6-,7, by Public Authority,
among the Number of Purgative Drugs; and was inferted
accordingly in the Pharmacopceia, publiShed by the Faculty
the fame Year.
Patin did all he could to decry Antimony: in his Let-
* ters we find an unufual Vehemence exprefs'd againif it-
He tad even compiled a large Regifler of Perfons whom
the Phyficians had kill'd by it; which he called the Marty-
rolcgy of  timonny.
Crude" ANTIMONY, or Intimony in Sub/?ance, is the
l Native Mineral Antimony, melted down and cafd in Cones&
as abovementionid-It is much ufed in Diet-drinks and
Decodtions of the Woods. and Compofitions again1r the Scur-
vy, as a Diaphoretic, and Deobfiruent. See DIAPIIORE-
Prepared ANT I MONY is that which has undergone fame
Chymical Procefs, whereby its Nature and Powers ate al-
- tered or abated;i and this differently, according to the Cir-
cuififances of the Preparation. See ANTIMONIALS.,
Antimony, fays Mr. iYi'oyle, alone, or affociat~d with one
or two other Ingredients, by a variety of Operations and
Compofitions, might be brought to farnilh a whole Apo-
F f                   thecaryts

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