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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Analecta - antimony,   pp. 83-109 PDF (20.2 MB)

Page 86

A   IC
(A6 )
Alicoveree the lower Salivat buas; and Steno the upper
Salival Du&s, thofe of the Palate, the Noftrils, and Eyes
in Its4. See SiLIVAL.---.Wirtfitgus, in 1642, difcover'4
the Pancreatic Duts. SeePANCREATIC.-WiliS, whc
came after him, publifhid an Anatomy of the Brain, an(
Nerves, in a manner much more exa& than had been don(
before him 5 yet he had omitted Come ceonfiderable Things
which were afterwards obferv'd by Yieuf/ens. See NE.VE
-in    e&&, Gliffon treated particularly of the Liver
Wtharton of the Glands; Havers of the Bones; Graaf ol
the Pancreatick juice, and the Parts of Generation ; Lover
of the Motion of the Heart; 5 7-iurfion, of Refpiration
Peyer, of the Glands of the Inteflines; .Brown, of the
Mufcies; 5fDrelincourt, of the Conception of the Ova in
Women, the Placenta, and the Membranes of the Fetus
MHalipghi, who died it 1694, is one of tbofe to whom
Anatomy owes the mofde He made a great Number of Dif
coveries in the Lungs, Brain, Liver, Spleen, Glands, and
Lymphaticks, by help of the Microfcope, Wc. Nor mufi ii
be omitted that RUyfch, fill living, has let great Light into
many of the finer and more intricate Parts of the human
Frame, particularly the ;lands; by means of his Injeiions.
Mauget, and Le Cler, two Phyficians of Geneva, have
given us a Bibliotheca Anatomica; containing all the new
Difcoveries that have been made in this Art.
The beit Syflems of the Art, as it now ilands, are thofe
of Verheyen, Drake, Keill, &c.
ANATOMY of Plants.    See PLANT.-See alfo RooTr,
tic.-See alfo VEGETATION, EGC.
The Word comes from the Greek drtToIw'i, Sedion, or
Cutfifg; of 01117' 0, dqfico.
ANATRON, or NAThON, a kind of native Salt-petre,
or Nitre, found in Egypt. See NATRON, and NITRE.
ANATRON, is alro a volatile Salt, fkimm'd from the Com-
pofition of Glafs, when in fufion. See GLASS.
When pounded, it yields a kind of Pouder; which being
difl'olv'd in the Air, or in a proper Liquor, becomes com-
mon Salt, after Coagulation.
.Anatron is likewire the Name of a nitrous Juice, which
condenfes in Vaults, Arches, and other fubterraneous Places.
ANATRON is alfo ufed by fome Writers for a compound
Salt, made of Quicklime, Alum, Vitriol, common Salt, and
Nitre. See SALT.
ANBURY, a kind of Wen, or fpongy Wart, growing
upon any part of a Horfe, or Cow, full of Blood.
ANCESTORS, Progenitors; or thofe from whom      a
Perfon is delcended. See PROGENITOR.
The Word is deriv'd from the Latin Aceor, wrote, by
Contraclion, for Anteceffor, goef before.
The Law diffinguilhes between A'ncejtor and Predeceffor;
the former being applied to a Natural Perfon, as fuch an
one, and his Anceftor; and the latter to a Body Politick or
Corporate, as a Bifhop, and his Predeceffors.
ANCESTREL, in Law.-Homage ANCESTREL, fignifies
Homage that hath been done or performed by one's Ancef-
tors. See HOM AC E.
ANCHOR, an Infirument ufed at Sea, and in Rivers;
to retain and faflen a Veffel by. See SHIP.
An Anchor is a large ilrong piece of Iron, crooked at one
End, and form'd into two Barbs, refembling a Hook; faf-
ten'd at the other end by a Cable. See CABLr, EeC.
The Goodnefs of the Anchor is a Point of great Impor-
tance; the Safety and Confervation of the Veffel depending
principally thereon.-Great Care is to be taken, that the Me-
tal it is made of, be neither too foft, nor too brittle; the
latter rendering it liable to break, and the former to firaiten.
Travellers tell us of People in the Indies who make ufe
of wooden Anchors in their Navigation.-The Inhabitants
of the Ifland of Ceylon, in lieu of Anchors, ufe huge round
Stones; and in Come Places, the Anchors are a kind of Ma-
chines of Wood, loaden with Stones.
The Word comes from the Latin Ancora, of the Greek
')'ixue, which comes from dzwxoa, incurvus, crooked.
The Parts of an Anchor, are, 10, The Ring, into which
the Cable is falren'd: 10, The Beam, or Shank, which is
the longefd Part of the Anchor: 3o, The Arm, which is
that which runs down into the Ground: at the End of
Which is, 4e, The Flouke, or Fluke, by Come called the
TPalM ; being that broad and picked Part with its Barbs like
an Arrow-head, which faflens into the Ground: 50, The
Stock, a piece of Wood fafilen'd unto the Beam, near the
Ring, ferving to guide the Fluke, fo that it may fall right,
and fix in the Ground.
There are three Kinds of Anchors commonly ufed: the
Kedger, the Grapnel, and the Stream-Anchor: 'which fee
vnder tkeir reftpedive drticles.
r    ubin in his Diaionary of Sea-Affiir
;, .erdam in 1702, obferv6s, that the A4rC1oa
I Veffel is fmaller, in proportion, than the
D lighter one. The ReaTon he gives, is, tha
I ploys an equal Force againfl a rmall Vefel
one, fuppofing the Extent of Wood upor
aats, to be equal, in both; yet the little V
its fuperior Lightnefs, does not make Co v
the greater; the Defe: whereof mull be
F Weight of the Anchor.
ANCHOR, in Architecture and Sculpture
form of an Anchor, or Arrow's-head; fret
the Echinus, or Quarter-round, in the 5
I rinthian, &c. Capitals. See CAPITAL, e
The Anchors are utually intermix'd wit:
of Eggs; whence the Echinus it Celf is pol
and Anchors. See EtHINIUS, QUARTER-,
Ship's Anchor, Co that Ihe may ride fafely.
The beft Ground for a Ship to anchor i
hard Sand; and the bell tiding at Anchor,
is Land-lock'd, and out of the Tide.
ANCHORAGE, in Law, a Duty taken
Pool of the Haven, where they cafl Anct
No Man can let an Anchor tall on the King's GIound iii
any Pott, without paying for it to the King's Officer ap-
pointed by Patent.
ANCHORED, in Heraldry.-A CroJf-ANCHORED, or
ANCREE, is a form of Crofs Co called, becaufe the four Ex-
tremities refemble the Flouke of an Anchor. See CROSS.
This Crofs is Co like the Crofs Moline, that the Refem-
blance has occafioned many Miflakes in Heraldry. See Mo.
mit, or devout Perfon, living alone in Come Derart; to be fur-
ther out of the reach of the Temptations of the World, and
more at leifure for Meditation. See HERMIT.
Such were St. Anthony, St. Hilarion, &c. Paul the
Hermit was the firfil of the Tribe of A4nchorites.-The
Word comes from the Greek dviaran,, I retire into a By-
Thefe People are very numerous among the Greeks; con.
filling principally of Monks, who not caring for the Fa-
tigues and Offices of the Monaflery, purchafe a little Spat
of Ground, with a Cell, whither they retreat, and never
appear in the Monailery again, excepting on folemn Days.
See MoNx.
Thefe are alfo called afcets and Solitaries. See ASCETA,
and SOLttTARY.
The Anchorites of Syria and Paleftine retire into the
moll obfcure, and unfrequented Places; hiding themfelves
under Rocks, and Mountains, and living on the fpontaneous
Produ&ions of the Earth.-The Anchorites in America, are
look'd upon there, as by far the moil perfeSt fort of Monks ;f
and are held in much higher Opinion and Veneration than
the Coenobites, or Monks refiding in Monalleries. See Cox-
Many of thefe retire, with the leave of their Abbots, and
have an Allowance from the Monaftery.-The People, in
regard of their Piety, prefent them with good Sums of Mo
ney, which they carefully hoard up, and at their Death, be-
queath it to the Monaflery they had belong'd to.
ANCHOVY, in Matters. of Commerce, Cc. a little],
Sea Fifh, much ufed by way of Sauce, or Seafoning.
Scaliger defcribes it as of the Herring-kind, about the
Length ot a kinger, having a pointed Snout, a wide .
no Teeth, but Gums as rough as a Saw.-Others ma
fort of Pilchard: But others, with better Reaonl h
peculiar Species, very different from either. See FI
The Anchovy is caught in the Months of May, y7t
*yuly, on the Coafis of Catalonia, Provence, &c. at
Seafon, it conflantly repairs up the Straits of Gib,
into the Mediterranean.
The Filhing is chiefly in the Night-time; when, a
being put out on the Stern of their little Fifhing-Veffi
Anchovies flock round, and are caught in the Nets
When the Filhery is over, they cut ofT the Head&
out the Guts ; then lay 'em in Barrels and falt 'em.
common way of eating Anchovies, is as Salad, wit
Vinegar, Wic. in order to which, they are firfi bones
the Tails, Fins, Fec. flipp'd ofl They are made into
by mincing, adding to 'em a Cutlet of Veal or Ham
Pepper, bic. over the Fire.
The Word is derived from the Spanilh Anchora,
ther from the Italian, Ancboia.
ANCHYLOPS, in Medicine, a Species, or rather I
of Fillula Lachrymalis; frequently confounded with
lops, &c. See FISTULA, and aEGILOPS.
ANCO, or ANCON, the Tip of the Elbow; or the
ward and larger Procefs of the Cubitus. See CUSITvi

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