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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Alguazil - anagram,   pp. 61-82 PDF (20.5 MB)

Page 67

A L t
begins, in three  four Days, to gather into a tafs; which
being taen out, wafhed, and melted over ag in is fit
for  e.
The Mineral Stone, before it is calcined, being expofed
to the Air,O will mhoulder in pieces, and yield a Liquor
whereof Copperas may be made; but being calcined it is fit
for Allurn.-As long as it continues in the Earth, or in Wa-
ter, it remains a hard Stone.-Sometimes a Liquor will iffue
out of the Side of the Mine, which by the Heat of the Sun
is turned into a Natural A/lurn.
in the Alawm-Works at Civita Vecchia, the Procefs, as de-
fcribed by M. Geoffroy, is fomewhat different.-The Stone,
which is of a ruddy hue, being calcined, they boil and dif-
folve the CaIx in Water; which imbibing the Salt, i. e. the
_rll/um,feparates it felffrom the ufelefs Earth. Lafily, leav-
ing the Water thus impregnated with Salt to fland for fome
Days, it cryfiallizes of it felf, like Tartar about a But, and
makes what they call Roche or Roman-Al/urn.
At Solfatara, near Puzzuoli, is a confiderable oval Plain,
the Soil whereof is wholly faline; and fo hot, that the Hand
cannot long bear it.-From the Surface hereof, in Summer-
time, there-arifes a fort of Flour, or faltilh Duft ; which
being fwept up, and caft into Pits of Water at the bottom
of the Plain; the Heat of the Ground, without any other
Fire, evaporates the Water, and leaves an All/m behind.
A/l/um diffiolves in Water, and what remains undiffolved
at bottom, is a fort of Calx, which dilfolves readily enough
in Oil, or Spirit of Vitriol.-And hence there arifes fome
doubt, whether Allurn, as it does not leave an Earth be-
hind, does properly belong to the Clafs of Salts.-Mr. Boyle
aiffres us, that A/lurn Ore robb'd of its Salt, does in trad of
Time recover it again in the Air. See AIR.
The Swedijb Allurn is made of a Mineral which contains
a great deal of Sulphur and Vitriol, not to be taken away
but by Calcination or Diflillation. The Matter remaining in
the Iron Veffels ufed in feparating the Sulphur from the
Mineral, being expofed to the Air for fome time, becomes
a kind of blueifh Afhes, which they lixiviate, cryflallize, and
convert into Altum.
The Word A/llum comes from the Greek cdtx, Salt; or
perhaps from the 'Latin Lumen, Light:; becaufe it adds a
tLufire to Colours.
All//u is of fome ufe in Medicine, in quality of an Ab-
forbent; but being apt to excite Vomiting, is not much ufed
inwardly, and rarely without fome fmooth Aromatick, as a
Corre&or.-'Tis ufed outwardly in afiringent Lotions, and is
an Ingredient in feveral Dentifrices.
It is a principal Ingredient in Dying and Colouring; nei-
ther of which can be well performed without it.- It ferves
to bind the Colour upontee Stuffs, and has the fame Ufes
there, that Gum-water an glutinous Oils have in Painting.
it likewife difpofes Stuffs fotake the Colour, and adds a
degree of Brifknefs and Delicacy to it : as we fee vifibly in
Cochineal, and the Grain of Scarlet.
The Eaeds of A/llum feem owing to its flyptick, or afirin-
gent Quality, by which it binds the finer Parts of Colours to-
gether, and prevents their exhaling. Hence alfo it preferves
Paper that has been dipp'd in its Water, from finking when
wrote upon. See CoLouR, DYING, SC.
Saccharine ALLUM, bears a near resemblance to Sugar.-
It is a Compofition of common Allsin with Rofe-water, and
Whites of Eggs, boil'd together to the Confiftence of a Pafie,
and thus moulded at pleafure. As it cools, it grows hard as
Burnt ALLUM, Alumen Ufium, is Allurn calcined over
the Fire, and thus render'd whiter, more light, and eafily
pulveriz'd.             X
Plumofe ALLUM, Al/men 'luvmofum, is a fort of faline,
mineral Stone, of various Colours, mofi commonly white
bordering on green; refembling Venetian Talc, except that
inflead of Scales, it rifes in Threads or Fibres, refembling
thofe of a Feather; whence its Name, from P/uma, Peather.
Some will have this to be the Lapis Arnianthus of the
Antients. See AmIANTHUS.
who by Trade coloureth, or paints upon Paper or Parchment.
ALLUSION, ALLUSIO, inRhetorick, a Figure whereby
fomething is applied to, or underflood of, another, by reafon
of fome Similitude of Name, or Sound.
Cametn idefines Alluiron a dalliance, or playing with
Words like in Sound, but unlike in Senfe; by changing,
adding, or fubtraffing a Letter, or two; whence Words re-
fernbling one another, become applicable to different Subjefls.
Thus the Almighty, if we may ufe facred Authority,
chang'd Abram, i. e. high Father, into Abraham, i. e. Father
of many.-Thus the Romans play'd on their tippling Em-
peror- Tiberius Nero, by calling him ABiberius Nero: and
thus in _Xninti/ian the four Fellow Placidus, is call'd Acidas.
Allufeins come very near to what we popularly call Punss
See PUN.
The Word is form'd of the Latin ad, and ladere, to play.
ALLJVIOS, Ar"LiVio, in the Civil Law, an Acceiiiod
or Accretion made along the Sea-fhore, or the Banks of
large Rivers, by means of Tempefis or Inundations. {ee
The Civil Law places Alluvion among the lawful feans
of Acquifitibn; and defines it to be a latent imperceptible
Accretion.-Hence, where any confiderable Portion of
Growind is torn away at once, by an Inundation; and join'd
to fome neighbouring Eflate; this is not acquired by right
of Al/uvion, but may be clainm'd again by the former Prro-
The Word is form'd of the Latin Adl/o, I wafh to,, corn;
pounded of ad, and lavo, I wafh.
RATS, in Aftronomy. See ALMUCANTARS.
ALMAGEST, the Name of a celebrated Book, compofed
by Ptolermy; being a Colleffion of many of the Obferva-
tions and Problems of the Antientsi relating both to Geometry
and Affronomy.
In the Original Greek it was called d'tW7Xts 1 rsn, q. do
Greatefi Con/Irriffion, or Colleafion: Which lafi Word Ae-
gifte, join'd to the Particle Al, gave occafion to its being cal-
led A/magejle by the Arabians, who translated it into their
Tongue about the Year 8co, by Order of Maimon, Caliph
of Babylon.-The Arabic Word is Almagbefti.
Ricciolus has alfo publifh'd a Reformed Afironomy, which
he intitles, after Ptolemy, the New Almageft; being a Co1-
leaiion of antient and modern Obfervations in Afironomy.
See ASTRONOMICAL Obfervation.
ALMANACK, or EPHEMERIS, a Calendar or Table;
wherein are fet down the Days, and Feafks of the Year, the
Courfe of the Moon, &)c. See CALENDAR, YEAR, DAYj
The Original of the Word is much controverted among
Grammarians.-Some derive it from the Arabick Particle
Al, and Mana, to count.-Others, and among them Scali-
ger, rather derive it from Al, and po:'xo'S, the Courfe of the
Months: Which is contradialed by Golitus,who advances ano-
ther Opinion; He fays, that throughout the Eaff, 'tis the
Cuflom for Subjeds, at the Beginning of the Year, to make
Prefents to their Princes; and among the reft, the Afirolo-
gers prefent them with their Ephemerides for the Year en-
ifuing; whence thofe Ephemerides came to be called Al-
man/ia, i. e. Handfels, or New-Years Gifts. See EPIrz-
To fay no more, Yerflegan writes the Name Almon-ac;
and makes it of Saxon Original: Our Anceflors, he ob-
ferves, ufed to carve the Courfes of the Moon of the whole
Year upon a fquare Stick, or Block of Wood, which they
called Al-monaght, q. d. A/-moon-heed.
The modern Almanack anfwers to the Fajli of the antient
Romans. See FASrI.
S'he Necesfaries for making an Almanack, the Reader
'will find ander the Article CALENDAR.
Henry III. of France, very prudently decreed by an- Or-
donnance of I579, that ' No Almanack-Maker Ihould pre,
' fume to give Predidfions relating to Civil Affairs, either
' of States or private Perfons, in Terms either exprefs at
' covert.' See ASTROLOGY.
In the Philofoph. olletI. we have a perpetual A/manack*
defcribed by Mr. R. Wood.
ALMANDIN, or ALBANDIN, a Precious Stone, of the
Ruby Kind; Something lighter and fofter than the Orien-
r tal Ruby: and as to Colour, partaking more of that of the
Granat than the Ruby. See RUBY, GRANAT, SC.
It is rank'd among the richeff of Stones; and takes its
Name from Albana, a City of Caria, whence Pliny fays
it is brought. See PRECIOUS Stone.
ALMARIA, for Armaria, in our antient Records, the
Archives of a Church, or the like. See ARCaIVE.
ALMOIN, in Law. See FRANX-A/MOin.
ALMOND, Armygdala, a kind of Fruit, inclofed with a
thick Stone, and under a thin Skin. See FRUIT.
The Almond is the Produce of a pretty tall Tree, refem-
bling a Peach Tree; frequent in Germany, France, and rho
neighbouring Countries; as alfo in Barbary, &c.-Its Flows
X ers are pentapetalous, and ranged in the Rofe manner: The
Pi{+il becomes a flefhy Fruit, containing a Seed, which is
the Almond; and which drops out when the Fruit is arrived
at Maturity.
Almonds are chiefly of two Kinds, Sweet and !Bitteei
The Sweet Almonds, Amygdale Du/ices, are of a fo'ts
grateful Takfe; and are reputed cooling, healing, emollient,
and nutritive: are much prefcribed in Emulfions, and found
- of good effe& in all Diforders from cholerick and acrimoni
I ous Humours.-The Oil of Sweer Almonds, drawn without
Fire, is a fafe and ufeful Remedy in nephritick Pains. It is
* alfo of good repute for Coffivenefs and Gripes in Children,

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