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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Alguazil - anagram,   pp. 61-82 PDF (20.5 MB)

Page 64

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tlpathy to Acids} will readily ditfolve ctude Iron even in
'the Cold.
Further, the Patrons of this Hypothefis, feem arbitrarily
to have afligned Offices to each of their two Principlesas the
Chymifts So to each of their tria prima, and the Peripa-
teticks to each of their four Elements. -But 'tis not
cenough to fay, that an Acid, for inflance, performs thefe
things, and an Alkaly thofe; and that they divide the Ope-
rations and Phmnomena of natural Bodies between them I
Aflertions of fuch moment ought not to be received, without
further Proof. Indeed, the very Diffribution of Salts into
Acids and Alkalies, has fonewhat arbitrary in it; there be-
ing not only feveral things wherein the Acids agree with
Alkalies, but alfo feveral things wherein each diiers from
it felf.-To fay nothing of the Diverfity of fix'd and volatile
Alkalies abovemention'd; fome, as Salt of Tartar, will
precipitate the Solution of Sublimate into an Orange-taw-
ny; others, as Spirit of Blood and Hartfhorn, precipitate
fuch a Solution into a milky Subflance; and Oil of Tartar
very flowly operates upon Filings of Copper, which Spi-
rits of Urine and Hartfhorn will readily diffolve in the Fire.
And among Acids themfelves the difference is no lefs; for
faome of them will diffolve Bodies that others will not: and
this even where the Menflruum that will not diltolve the
Body, is reputed much fironger than that which does; as
dephlegmated Spirit of Vinegar will diffolve Lead reduced
to minute Parts in the cold, which is an Effle that Chy-
mifs expecd not from Spirit of Salt. Nay, one Acid will
precipitate what another has difrolved, and e contra; as, Spi-
rit of Salt will precipitate Silver out of Spirit of Nitre.
Add, the Properties peculiar to fome particular Acids, as
that Spirit of Nitre or Aqua fortis, diffiolves Camphire
into an Oil, and coagulates common Oil into a confifient
Subllance like Tallow>; and tho it will both corrode Silver,
Copper, Lead, and Mercury, and keep them difrolved, it
quickly lets fall almoft the whole Body of Tin.
'Tis no wonder that the Definitions given of Acid and
Alkaly fhould be inaccurate and fuperficial; fince the Chy-
mifs themfelves do not feem to have any determinate No-
tion of fure Marks, whereby to know them diflinaly.-For,
to infer, that, becaufe a Body dillolves another, which is
diffibluble by this or that known Acid, the Solvent muff alfo
be Acid; or to conclude, that, if a Body precipitates a dif-
folved Metal out of a confeffedly acid Menflruum, the Pre-
cipitant mufl be an Alkaly, is precarious: fince Filings of
Spelter will be diffolveO by fome Alkalies, viz. Spirit of Sal
Ammoniack, c. as well as by Acids; and Bodies may be pre-
cipitated out of acid Menfirua, by other Acids, and by Li-
quors wherein there appears not the leafl A1kaly.  Add,
that a Solution of Tin-glafs, made in Aqua fortis, would
be precipitated both by Spirit of Salt, and by common
Water.-Nor does that other Criterion of Acids and Alka-
lies, viz. the Heat, Commotion, and Bubbles excited upon
their being put together, appear more determinate; fince
almofl any thing fitted variously and vehemently to agitate
the minute Parts of a Body, will produce heat in it.-Thus,
tho Water be neither an Acid nor an Alkaly, it will quick-
ly grow very hot, not only with the highly acid Oil of Vi-
triol, but with the alkalizate Salt of Tartar. See HEAT.
Neither is the Produffion of Bubbles, tho accompany'd
with a hilling Noife, a certain Sign; fuch Pro uaion
not being a necelfary Ef~ed of Heat, excited by Con-
fli&L, but depending on the peculiar Difpofition of the Bo-
dies put together, to extricate, produce, or intercept Parti-
cles of Air.-Hence, as Oil of Vitriol, mix'd in a due Pro-
portion with fair Water, may be brought to make the Wa-
ter very hot, without exciting Bubbles : fo Mr. .Boyle has
found, that alkalizate Spirit of Urine, drawn with fome
kinds of Quick-lime, being mixed with Oil of Vitriol
moderately firong, would afford an intenfe heat, whilft
it produced either no manifeft Bubbles at all, or fcarce
any; tho the urinous Spirit was firong, and in other Trials
operated like an Alkaly: and tho with the Spirit of Urine
made per fe, in the common way, Oil of Vitriol will pro-
duce a great hilling, and a multitude of confpicuous Bubbles.
On the other fide, fome acid Spirits, as of Verdegreafe,
made pure, poured on Salt of Tartar, will frequently make
a Conflia, and produce a large froth; tho not accompany'd
with any manifelt heat. See EBULLITION.
Many make the Talle the Touchflone whereby to try
Acids and Alkalies: But there is a multitude of Bodies,
wherein we can fo little difcern by the Tafle which of the
Principles is predominant, that one would not fufpea there
was a Grain of either of them thereinr: Such are Dia-
monds, moil Gems, and many ignobler Stones; Gold, Sil-
ver, Mercury, edc. There are alfo Bodies abounding with
acid or alkalizate Salts; which either have no Talle, or a
quite different one from that of the chymical Principles.-
Thus, tho Venice-glafs be in great part compofed of a fix'd
Alkaly, it is infipid on the Palate: And Cryflals of Silver
and Lead, made with Aqua fortis, and containing numerous
said Particles of the Mendruum, manifeft nothing of Aci-
dity in the Mouth; the latter having a faccha
Ves, and the former an extreme Bitternefs.
Vegetable Subfiances of a manifefi Tafle, 'tis
know by that, whether it be the Acid or t
Principle which predominates in 'em: As, in
Oils of Spices, and the grofs empyreumatical 0
and even in Alcohol of Wine, which fome conte
Acid, and others, an0lkaly. Imperfea .of Chym= 2
mills, are fuch as have their Pores naturally fo
they are fit to be pierced, and put into Mc
Points of an Acid poured upon them. See ALI
ALKEKENGI, a Medicinal Fruit, produce
of the fame Denomination, and popularly ca
The Plant bears a near refemblance to Solanu
fhade, whence it is frequently called in La
-go> ",;e th.- L A.JXitin or EPitht of Vprica
fometimes alfo called Halicacabum.
The Fruit is celebrated for its lithontriptic Quality;
prefcribed to cleanfe the Urinary Pafages of Gravel,
other ObLlructions. Its deterfive Quality alfo reconim
it againrft the Jaundice, and other Diforders of the Vita
The T1rochifchi Alkekengi, prepared from it, are bui
tle prefcrib'd in the modern Praffice. See TROCHE.
ALKERMES, in Medicine, LGc. a Term borrowed
the Arabs.-The Confettion of Alkermes, is a celeb
Remedy, of the Form and Confillence of a Confie
whereof the Kermes Berries are the Bafis. See Cob
The the Inredent, a  pririe  ny tu  t ..oigear
The other Ingredients, as prelcribed by the College, are
Pippin-Cyder, Rofe-Water, Sugar, Ambergreafe, Mu&,
Cinnamon, Aloes Wood, Pearls, and Leaf Gold.-But the
Sweets are ufually omitted.
It is much ufed as a Cordial ; efpecially, fays Dr. Quincy,
among Female Prefcribers, and in complaifance to them..
But that Author decries its Value in that Intention, and
thinks it ought only to be regarded as a Sweetner.
ALLANTOIS, ALLANTOIDES, in Anatomy, a third
Coat or Membrane of a Fcetus, inveffing part thereof in
manner of a Scarf, or Collar, extending from the Cartila.
Xiphoides, to the bottom of the Hips. See FOETUS.
The Allantois makes part of the Secundine.-It is con-
ceived as an urinary Tunic, placed between the Amnion and
Chorion, which by the Navel and Urachus receives the -U-
rine that comes out of the Bladder. See SECUNDINE, and
'Tis a Point controverted among Anatomiffs, whether the<
llantois be found in Man.-M. Drelincourt, ProfelTr of
Anatomy at Leiden, in an exprefs Differtation on this Mem-
brane, maintains it peculiar to the Ruminating Kind. See
Dr. Hale, on the contrary, has given an accurate DeIcrip-
tion of the human Allantois; and alfign'd the Reafon why
thofe who believed its Exiflence had not before fully founa
it out; and alfo an anfwer to thofe who yet deny its reality.
See Philofopb. lrranff4tc. N0 2 7 I.
The Word is derived from ´Ahss, Farcimen, a Gut, and
laos, Formna, Shape ; becaufe, in many Brutes, it is in the
Shape of a Gut-pudding: but in Man, and fome others, it
is round.-It is likewife called Farciminalis.
ALLEGATION, the Citation, or Quotation of an A*
thority, Book,Paffage, Ee.ic. to make good any Point,or AfTer-
ALLEGIANCE, the legal Faith and Obedience, which
every Subje&l bears to his Prince. See KING, FEALTY, EaK.
This was antiently called Ligence; from the Latin Li-
gare, and Alligare, to bind, q. d. Ligamnenfidei. See LIEGE.
Oath of ALLEGIANCE, is an Oath given in FEngland to
the King, in quality of a Temporal Prince or Sovereign;
to diflinguifh it from the Oath given to him as Primate, or
fupreme Head of the Church, which is called the Oath of
Supremacy. See OATH; fee alfo KING, and SUPREMACY
In this Senfe, the Word Allegiance comes from the Latin
ad Legem.-The Quakers are difpenfed with not taking the
Oath of Allegiance; and in lieu thereof are only enjoin'd a
Declaration. See DECLARATION.
ALLEGORY, ALLEGORIA, a Figure in Rhetorick,
whereby we make ufe of Terms which in their proper Sig-
nification, mean Something elfe than what they are here in-
tended to denote: Or, it is a Figure, whereby we fay one
thing, expedfing it fhall be understood of another, to which
it alludes. See FIGUREE, ALLUsIoN, SC.
An Allegory is properly a Series, or Continuation of hJfi
taiphors. See METAPHOR.
Such is that beautiful Allegory in Horace, Lib.l. Od. 44,
0 Navis, referent in mare te novi
Flu SUs, &c.
Where the Ship, fands for the Republick; Waves, for
Civil War; Port for Peace and Concord; Oars for SldK
ers Mariners for Magijfrates, &c.               -The
.                                       .~~~~~~~~~~~~~Tl

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