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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

The preface,   pp. I [i]-xxx PDF (27.2 MB)


Errata,   p. xxx PDF (877.3 KB)


Page xxx


The P-R E                   F XC e.
kind. It may be faid, that eery Art tends to give the Mind a particular Turn;
and that the only way of
maintaining it in its natural Recditude, is by calling in other oppofite
ones, by way of Counter-ballance. Thus
we find nothing more perverfe and unfufferable than a mere Mathematician,
mere Critic, Grammarian, Chy-.
mift, Poet, Herald, or the like s and the proper Difpofition is only to be
had from a juff Temperament or
Mixture of 'em all.
I 0 W N this is not the way to make a very great progrefs in any Art, but
at the fame time it is th,
only way to hinder out being fpoil'd by any; and becoming Creatures rather
of Homer or Arifotfe's making,
than God's: and receiving our Taftes, Views, Relifles, at fecond hand, rather
than from  Nature her felf.
This, however, is only to be underftood with regard to perfonal Benefit.
For no doubt the Publick is better
provided for, by the mere Purfuers of particular Arts, than the general Appliers
to all: fince each is hereby brought
to greater Perfedlion; and the Mixture and Temperament, wanting in the Individuals,
is found in the Whole.
T 0 conclude, the ultimate View of a Work of this, or any other kind, Ihould
be, the forming a found
Mind, i. e. a Syflem. of Perceptions, and Notions agreeing to the Syftem
of Things, or in the Relation thereto,
intended by its Author.  The End of Learning and Study, is not the filling
our Heads with other Mens
Ideas ; that is an Inrichrmeut which may prove for the worfe, if it carry
any ill Quality with it: Richnefs is not
the chief thing aim'd at ; 'tis only a Circumftance, or Matter of a fecondary
Confideration : Soundnefs is the
firft. There are many Manures which the Hufbandman dares not ufe, by reafon
they would corrupt the
Land, at the fame time they enriched it; and lay the Foundation of a Difeafe,
which would in the End
impoverifh, and make it fpend it felf in unprofitable Weeds. A little pure
Logic, or Theology, or Chy-
mifry, in fome Peoples Heads, what Mifchief have they not produced ?-- --But
it mull be owned,
Mens Heads are not fo foon fill'd: the Memory is not fo tenacious as we imagine
; Ideas are tranfient
things, and feldom ftay long enough with us to do us either much good, or
harm: Ten to one but
what we read to-day, is forgot again to-morrow. And what chiefly makes new
Ideas of any fignificancy, is
their extending and enlarging the Mind, and making it more capacious and
fufceptible.----But neither is this
Enlargement the laff Aim ; but is chiefly of ufe, as, it contributes to the
increafing our Senfibility, to the ma-
king our Faculties more fubtil, and adequate, and giving us a more exquifite
Perception of things that occur;
and thus enabling us to judge clearly, pronounce boldly, conclude readily,
diftinguifh accurately, and to ap-
prehend the manner and Reafons of our Decifions. In which view, feveral things
may be ufeful, that are not
fo much dire&  Matters of Knowledge, as fubfervient to the fame End;
for inftance, much of the School Phi-
lofophy, which by exercifing and exciting the Mind, has a kind of collateral
tendency to fharpen its Faculties;
and needs only be read, not retain'd, to produce its Effects--But neither
does the Matter end here : Even this
does not amount to the full and adequate End of Knowledge: This is only improving
the Organ; and there
muff be fome farther End in fuch Improvement. No Man fharpens his Weapon
on the fole Confideration of
having it fharp, but to be the fitter for ufe. Briefly, then, our Faculties
being only fo many Inlets, whereby,
and according to.the Meafure whereof, we receive the Intimations of the Creator's
Will, or rather, the Effe~ts of
his Power and Aaion; all the Improvements made in 'em, have a tendency to
fubje&t us more entirely to
his Influence and Dire'tion ; and thus make us confpire, and move more in
concert with the reft of his Works, to
accomplilh the great End of all things. In which our Happinefs and Perfeaion
confifts; the Perfecion of a
fingle Nature, arifing in proportion as it contributes to that of the T 0'
II A N.
E R R A T A.
I   N   the Article Angle, Page 97. Column I. Line ult, for Centre L,   
  Article Concave A.l
read Centre I.                                                          Paracentric
Article Mean Anomaly, 1. io. infert Fig. 64.                            
   T.-Pa
Article Afymptote of a Logarithmic -Curve, infert Fig. 3,3.             
       Parallax of
Centre of Ofcillationl. II. for DE HB, r. DFHB.                         
   Acenfic
Centripetal Force, 1. 2. for Fig. 24. r. Fig. z5.                       
Parallelograt
Centrobaryc, Corol. VI. for divided into two M D, r. be 4ifeffed        
Particula Ea
in D, and for m 0, r. in 0.                                            P
rfpeclive (
Chord, p. 211. coL z. 1. 26. for Fig. 7. r. Fig. 6.                     
    ances, r,
Circle, p. 2 2 1. col. 1. 1. 27. for DE r. DF, and 1. 3 6. infert Fig. 7.
 Inclined Pla
Circumfcri6ing, for Fig. 3 2. r. Fig. z 9.                              
  of the fam
Commutation, 1. 3. afier Earth infert at S. and for Fig.24. r.Fig,z 6.  
 Projeflile, I
Conpajfes, for Geman compaffes r. German Compaihi.                      
   uniforml
cempoition of Motion, 1. i.7. for asfar as c , r. as far as c e.        
Pump, Artic
Conchilis, 1. 7. for E E r. E F.                                        
    r. a Cy,
Cone, p. 300. col. 1. 1. 13. for Diameter of its Bafe, r. Diameters     
Pyramid, 1.
of its Bafes.                                                         Sinical
ua4
Contac?, 1. Ix.. for cuts r. touches.                                   
 k4madrature
Crepufculum, p. 344 1. penult. for Sum of, r. Sun's, and p. 345         
Re6tangle, 1.
1. 2. and 3. for, P Z the Elevation of the Pole P R, r. P Z  the       Reciification
Complement of the Elevation, &c.                                    
      miaxes;
Curve, p.36i. col. 2. 1.26, and 5 9. for Tab.Analyfis r. Tab.Geom.      
 Reefifcation
Cycloid, 1. 4. for Tab. Analyfis r. W. Geometry.                        
 Reducaion o
Declinator, 1. z . for Centre E, r. CentreF.                            
RefraF.ion,
Defigning, 1. I o. for Fig. 9. r. Fig. 15.                              
 Retrogradat
Diagonal, 1.77. for B S, r. B E.                                        
 Rhomb, Art
Horizontal Dial, 1. 9. for Meridian Line B, r. Meridian Line A B,       
 Screw, Art
andl.i6. for DC, r. DE, and 1.z.z for a BCdH, r. ab cd H.              Sculpture
in
Eaft Dial, 1. I I. for A C, r. D C.                                     
     infert
Primary Dial, 1. 20. for E E, r. E F.                                   
Secant, 1. 4.
Line of Difiance, for Fig. io, and II. r. Fig. 12.                      
SeclOr, p. 45
Divifion in Lines, infert Tab. Geometry, Fig. i 7.                      
Sine, p. 8 1. ,
Eccentric, for Fig. it. r. Fig. 1.                                      
Sine-Compl
Equation, p.3 3 5. col. 1.1. 5. for given Pofition, r. given in Pefition.
 Solid Angle,
Flying, 1. z.o. for Temporal AMufcles r. Peeforal Mufcles.              
Star, p. 17.2
Geocentric Latitude, 1. II. for, e T i r. e t Y.                        
   Star C de
Latus Tran/verfum, for Fig.5. r. Fig.! . and for GLRO r. DLRO.          
   an Arch e
Logiflic Spiral, for Fig. II. r. Fig. z7z.                              
Triangle, p.
irror, Law II. after F infert Fig. 34 *e
Motion of Impetus, for Fig. z.5. r, Fig. 74. and dele e
arracentric Solicitation of Gravity, dele Fig. z 6.
Longitude, for Fig. z8. r. Fig. zg9.-Parallax of
on, for 29. r. z8.
,  1.I7. for Fig. 3 9. r. Fig.41. and 1. I 9. for CH r. CD;
efors, for Augment r. Argument.
)f a Triangle, 1. 14. for fince a, b, and are the Appedr-,
. fince a, b, and c are the Appearances.
ne, Law IX. after A C infert Fig. 5 8. and in the Corol.
e Law infert Fig.6o. and inLaw XIII. for BAK r. FG.
Law III. after defcribe a Parabola dele in a Medium
y refiffing.
Strufture of a Forcing Pump, 1. 1. for in a  lCylndev
inder.
70. for DF r. DE.
drant, 1. z. infert Fig. I 8.
of the Ellipfis, 1. 2. for Circle, r. CurVFf
Z7. for Fig. 41. r. Fig. 6I.
of a Parabola, for Conjugate Axes r. Conjugats Se'
and after Hyperbolic Space, add CQM A.
of the Cycloid, 1. I. infert Fig. 7.7
f a Figure, 1. II. for Fig. 64. r. Fig. 65.
1. g. for B, r. F.
,ion of the Sun, 1. i. for A N, r. A M.
Wie I. infert Fig. I.9.
. IV. for to be applied in K, r. to be applied in D.
Marble, after another Plummet like that of the Model,
Tab. Mi/cellany, Fig. 2.
for Circle B, r. Circle in B.
5 col. I. I. 4J. for Lines r. Sines.
col. x. 1. 6 3. for the Arch E F C, r. the Arch F C.
ement, 1. 2. for A E r. A H.
I. 3. for Fig. 3d. r, Fig. 3 I.
col. z. 1. zo. for Fig. T i. r. Fig- 7. and 1. z4. for the
fcribing an equal Arch C D H, r. the Star 1defcrjibing
qual to CD H.
,.4Z.. col. Z . 1. 41 . for A C, r. B C.  .- -.
N. B. The Figures relating to each Art are placed fronting the Name of the
refpecive Art, r
the Body of the Book; and are refer'd to under that Title: as, Tab. Arcbitedrure,
Tab. Geo6-:
metry, &c.-To each Figure is alfo annex'd the Word for whofe Exemplifcation
itferves
that the Reader may either go from the Word to the Figure, whicb exemplijes
it; or bqk'
wards, from the Figure, to the Word which explains it.
.
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