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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

The preface,   pp. I [i]-xxx PDF (27.2 MB)


Page v


The -PJR I9P A el
Aes, antecedent to fuch Intervention of outs; and even purfue th up to its
Cauf , and fhet how it eciffs
there, before it be Knowledge: And to trace the Progrefs of the Mind thro'
the Whole, and the Order of
the Modifications induced by it.  This is a Defideratum, hitherto fcarce
attempted ; but which we could non
here decline entering upon, on account of its immediate Relation to the prefent
Defign. 'Tis the Bafisi of all
Learning in general; the great, but obfcure Hinge, on which the whole Encyclopxdia
turns.
s Zones, Climates, &c.   Its Places ; their Longitude, Latitude, bif
nce, Elevation, &c.  Inhabitants, Antipodes, Aborigines, Trogloditesi
'eii, Perifciij &c. Initruments relating thereto, Globe, Map, &c.
36 N A V I G A T I0 N, or the Confideration of S A I L I N G; iil
hip, Frigate, Bark, &c.   Parts thereof; Mall, Anchor, Sails, Tards,
,rdage, Capflan, Rudder, Deck, cc.  Their Courfe, Rhumb, &c. fhewri
y Ceonpafs, Needle, Variation, &c. Direced by Steerage, Current,
c.  Diftance or Reckoning, by Log, Obfervation, Longitude, Lati:
0de. &c.  Taken by Fore-JlaJf, Back-jfaff, A/rolabe, Nmtiurnal. Si-
ical Ruadrant, &c.     Wrought by Gunter, Chart, Mercator, Tra-
erfe, &c. The Operatioeis of Sounding, Weighing, Careening.    Si&4
als, Buoy, 3cc.
37 COMMERCE, or the Affairs of MERCTIANDIZE; in-
luding, Money, Coin, Species, &c. as Pound, Crown, Shilling, Penny,
terling. Ducat, Dollar, Piece ef Eight. Talent, Sefl.erce, shekel, and the
ke.   Weights, Libra, Ounce, &c. Meaucres, Foot, 1'ard, Standard,
kc.  Given in Exchange, Truck, Permutation, Conmmutation, &cc for
danufadlure, Spice, Drug, Woollen, Slave. NeI1ro, Wc. Imported, Expor-
ed, Tranfporsed, Convoy,, Flota, &c. Conditions thereof, Tarijf, Contra-
band, charter-party, Freight, Average, &c.  Cuft sons, Duty, T'unnage,
loundage, &c.   BottomryAJfurance, Pike, &c.   Tranfalted by Coin-
any ; as Hans, Steel-yard, Eafl India, Turky, Hamburg, Mgl Vppi,
South Sea, Affiento, Rc.i-fler. Colony, Fifisery, Fallory, &c.  At Sta-
le, Fair, Market, Bank, Burfe, &c.    By Commijfion, Faalor, Broker,
&c.   Weighing, paying by Bill; at 1Jfance, Acceptance, Par. Pro-
'eft,  Ditcount, Rechange, &c.    At'7ion, Subfcription. Book-keeping,
&c.
35 ANATOMY, or theAnalyfis of ANIMAL BODIES, and
their P A R T S, viz. Bones, as Cranium, Rib, Vertebra, Radius, Fe-
7nur, Tibia. Sacrum, Pubis, Patella, &c. Their Artirulation, Apophyfes,
&cc. Mufcles, Abduslor, Adduefor, Erec7for, Depreffdr, Deltoides, Sar-
torius, Cucullaris, orbicularis, Sphindfer, &c. Their 3 endons, Fibres,
&c.    Veflels, as Artery, Aorta, Afpera, Trachea, Pulmonary, &c.
Veins, as Cava, Porta, jugular, Carotid, &c.   Glands, as Pancreas,
Parotides, Proftates, &c. Nerves; optic, Olfaclory, Auditory, &c,
Lymphatic, LaF~eal, Mefaraic, Mucilaginous, &c.    Their V'alves, Tu-
nics, Anaflomafes, &c. Their Humours, as chyle, Blood, Spirit, seed,
Gall, Urine, Milk, Sweat, Marrow, &c. Membranes ; Pannicle, Cu-
tis, Cstticula, Papilla,  &c.  Venters, Head, Meninges, Brain, &c.
Eye, Far, Pupil, Tympanum. Tongue, Teeth, Palate, Larynx, GlotA-
tis, Oefophagsos, &c.  Vifcera, Stomach, Lungs, Heart, &c. Livers
Spleen, Kidney, fnteflines, Bladder, &c.   Funcions or Operations
hereof, Refoiration, Deglultiion, Digeftion, chyliication, Sanguifcation,
Circulation, syftole, Nutrition. Secretion, Excretion, Perfpiraticn, Vo-
miting, &c.    Genitals, Penis, Teflicle, Clitoris, Matrix, Nympha, Hy-
men. Embryo, zoophyte, Mole, 3cc. Erection, Generation, Conception,
Gejlation. Delivery, Lochia, Menfes, &c.
39 ME D IC I N E. including     the Confideration of LI F E and
H E A L T H ; Conditions thereof, Longevity, Strength, Temperament,
&c.   Means, as Food, Drink, Exercife, &cc. Oppofites, as Death0
Difeafe, &c.    Kinids hereof, Chronic, Epidemic, Contagiouss, &c.
as
Plague, Fever, Gout, Apoplexy, Epilepfy, Palfy. Pox, Polypus, Palpi-
tation. Madnefs, Hydrophobia, Spa/m, Hypochondriac. Phthifis, Scor-
butus, Dropfy, Tympanites.   Lepra, Itch, Pllca, Ophthalmia, Gutta,
Cataracl, and the like.    Wound, ulcer, rancer. Fra4lure, Fiffiere,
Caries, and the like.  Symptoms, S;gn, Diagnoflic, Pulfe, Urine, &c.
Prefcription, Crifis, Care, &c. Regimen, Diet, Medicine, &c. Kinds
hereof, Specific, Purgative, Emetic, Diaphoretic, Diuretic, Alterative St-yp-
tic, Af ringent, Emollient, Opiate. Abforbent, Cauftic, Anodyne, Sympathe-
tic. Cardiac, Cephalic, Febrifuge. Anthnonial, Cbalybeat, Mercurial,
and the like. Operations, as Evacuation, Phlebotomy, Seture, Litho-
tomy, Amputation, Inoculation. Salivation, Couching, Cupping, Tre-
panning. Touching, Tapping, stroking, Transfajion, Cafiration, Circum-
cijon, and the like.
40 P H A R MA C Y, or the Prebaration and Compofition of R n.
M E D I E S ; as Mitbridate, Treacle, Hiera Picra, Lauranum, Diafenna,
Turbith, Calomel, &c. in the Form of Eleciuary, Confee~ion, Extra g7,
Tinlure, Syrup. Troche, Pill, Pouder, Lohoc, Potion, Apa4zem, Drops,
medicated Ales, Wines, Waters. Unguent, Emplagfer, Purge, Clyfter,
Suppofitory, Pe/fary, Collyrium, &c.  From   Drugs, or Simples; as,
Guaiacum, Saffiafras, colocynthis, Crocus, Rhubarb, Caffia, Senna, Cor-
tex, Styrax, Jalap, Scammony, Opium, &c.     Fats, Claws, Horns, &c.
of Viper, Crab, Elk, &c. Cantharides, Millepedes, Mummy, Ufnea,
Ichthyocolla, &c. Antimony, Orpiment, Afphaltus, Bi/muth, Marca-
fite, Bole, Cinnabar, Mars, Venus, &c.
41 AGRICULTURE, or the Tillage and Improvement of
SOILS, Cl4y, Sand, Earth, &c' By the Operations of Ploughbig,
Fallowing, Burning, Sembradore, Sowing, Manuring, &c.       To pro.
duce, Corn, Hemp, Flax, Liquorice, Saffron, &c.    For Malt, Bread,
&c.   Granary, Threhing, &c.      The Culture of Trees, Timber, &c.
by Planting, Lopping, Barking, &c. For Coppice, Park, Paddock,
Hedge, Pafture, &c.
s6ARCHITECTURE, includingtheConfltru&ionofBuILD-n It
I N G s; as Hotufe, Temple, Churhf Hall, Palace, Theatre, &c. ship, 
ta
Galley, Galleon, Ark, Buccentaur, Boat, &c. Pyramid, Maufoleum,    Aj
pantheon, &c. Capitel, &ragiD, Efcurial, &c. Arch, V4ult, Bridge,
Monutaent, Tomb, &c. Forms thereof, Rotondo, Platform, Pinnacle,
&c. Plans, Defign, Ichnography, Profile, &c. Parts, as Foundation,
 S)
Wall, Roof, &c. Door, Window, Stairs, Chimney, &c.     Orders, as
 Co
Tufcan, Doric, Corinthian, &c. Caryatides, Ruflic, Gothic, &c. Co-
 b
lumn, PilafleF, 4ttic, &c. Parts thereof, Entablature, Capital, Pe- 
&
defYal, &c. Cornice, Frieze, Bafe, &c. Volute, Pediment, Modillion,
 tu
Confole, &CG   Mouldings,  Ogee, Tore, Aflragal, Scotia.  Abacus,  *i
Ovolo, &c.   Materials, as Brick, Stone, Tyle, Slate, Shingle, &c.
 v,
Timber, Wainfcot, Gl4fs, Lead, Plafler, &c. Beam, Rafter, Mortar,  n;
Nail, Hinge, Key, Lock, &c. /2rjarry, Mafonry, &c.
17 SCULPTURE, or the framing of Statue, Figure, Orna-           cl
ment, &c. in Relievo, Creux, &c. as Carving, Pottery, Porcelain,
  S
&c.   Engraving, Seal, Dye, &c. Etching, Cutting. Mezzo 7into,  
  hi
&c.   Foundery, of Bell, Letter, Ordnance, &c.   Coining, Money,
  &
Medal, Medallion, &c. Pile, Legend, &c. Lapidary, Turnery, Inlaying,
 JI
Vaneering, DamafIqteening, Enchafing, &c.
b
28 TRADES and MANUFACTlURES; as Printing, Paper-                 I
making, Book-binding, &c. Gilding, japanning, Glafs-making Grind-  p
ing, &c. Plumbery, Glaziery, Forging, Hammering, &c. Weaving,   
  S
Bleaching, Whitening, &c. Fulling, Dying, Preffing, Sheering. Calen-
p
dring, Tabying, Freezing, &c. Woollen, Silk, Linum Incombuftibile, &c.
 Z
Cloth, Serge, Taffety, Stocking, &c. Velvet, Tapifiry, Hat, &c. Tan-
 t
ning, Currying, Tawing, &c. chamoifing, Chagreen, Marroquin, &c.
Making Parchment, Glue.    Gun-pooder, Smalt, Soap, Starch, &c.
Candle, Taper, Torch, &c. Steel, Button, Pin, Needle, Pipe, Fan, Pe-
rake, &c.
29 P YROTECHNY, or Artificial FIRE-Work; including the
Confideration and Ufe of Gun-ponder, Match, Fufee, &c. Of Ord-
nance, Cannon, Gun, Mortar, &c. Carriage, Charge, Projelion, Range,
point-blank, Recoil, &c. Petard, Carcafs, shot, Bomb, Granado, &c.
Rocket, Star, &c.
30 M I L I T A R Y Art, including   the Confideration of A R-
mlEs, Fleets, Cavalry, Infantry, &;c.    Confiffing of Regiments,
Troops, Companies, Phalanx, Legion, &c. Soldiers, Dragoon, Grena-
dier, Fufileer, Cuira /er, Archer, yanifary, spahi, Velites, Argyrafpi-
des, Gend'armery, &c.   Divided into Squadron, Battalion, Brigade,
&c.    Commanded by General, Mar/hal, Bafhaw, Admiral, &c.
Lieutenant, Brigadier, Colonel, Captain, Serjeant. Major, Adjutant,
Enfign, jarter-Mafler. Tribune, Centurion, Primipilus, &c.    In
Battle, Siege, March, Camp, &c. Ranged in Line, Column, &c. Mo-
tions, Attack, Retreat, Halt, &c.   Evolutions, Wheeling, Counter-
wheeling, &c. Signals, Word, Drum, chamade, &c. Guards, Gari-
fon, Piquet, Patroll, Round, kuarter, Place of Arms, &c. Standard,
Banner, Eagle, Labarum, &c. Their Arms, Artillery, Carabine, Muf.
quet, &c. Helmet, Buckler, Pelta, Cuirafs, &c. Aries, Balifla, Cata-
pulta, Fundus, &c.
3  FFORTIFICATION, or the Confiruffion              of   FoR.
T1 RE S S E S ; as Citadel, Cafile, Tower, &c. Fort, Star, Redoubt,
&c. Works, or Parts thereof, Rampart, Baflion, Ditch, Counter-
fcarp, Curtain, &c. Ravelin, Horn-work, Crown-work, &c.       Ap-
proaches, Trench, Sap, Mine, &c. Line, Parallel, circumnvallation,
&c. Battery, Attack, &c.
31 AS T R O N O M Y, or the Doflrine of the H E A V E N S;
Their Circles, Ecliptic, Zodiack, Meridian, Equator, Vertical, Azi-
mutb. Galaxy, &c. Points, as Pole, Zenith, Nadir, &c. Celeflial
Bodies, viz. Stars, Sun, &c. Affemblage thereof, into Sign, Confiella-
tion, &c. Their Preceffion, Culmination, Refraciion. Declination,
Afcenfion, Longitude, Latitude. Altitude, Amplitude, Azimuth. Pla-
nets, asSaturn, Venus, Earth.  Moon, Satellite, Comet, &c.  Their
Places, Afpe~fs, Syzygy, Conjinlion, (Radrature. Diameter, Diflance,
Period, Revolution, Orbit, Node, &c. Their Station, Retrogradation,
Equation, &c. Their Phafes, Eclipfe, Penumbra, Occultation, Paral-
lax, Crepufculum, Macule, &c. Obfervations thereof, taken with the
Ryadrant, Gnomon, Micrometer, Reticula, &c.   Colleced in Cata-
logue, Tables, &c. Hypothefes, or Syftems thereof, Copernican, Ty-
chonic, Ptolemaic, &c. Exhibited in Sphere, Globe, &c.
33 C H R O N O L O    G Y, or the Doctrine of T I M E; meafur'd
by rear, Month, Week, Day, Hour. Age, Period, Cycle, &c.   Com-
mencing from Epocha, Creation, Hegira, &c. Laid down in Fdfti,
Almanack, Calendar, julian, Gregorian, 3cc.     Accommodated to
Feafis, Ferie, Eafter, &c. by means of Epat, Golden Number, De-
minical, &c.
34 D I A L L I N G, including the Furniture and Projection of D I.
A L S, Horizontal, Declining, Reclining, Deinr4ining, &c. Moon-Dial,
Ring-Dial; Horodiclical, &c. Infiruments, as Declinator, Analemma,
&ales, &c.
35 G    E  O  G  R  A  P  H  Y, including the Dofcrine of the E  A  R  T
 H, or  41 G A  R  D  E  N  I  N  G, including the Culture of H  fi R  B
 S, Plow-
G L 0 Ea  its Circles; Parallel, Tropic, Horizon, Axis, Poles, &c. ers,
Fruits, 3cc as Dwarf, standard, Stone, Wall, Efpalier, Sal1ad, &c.
b                            The
T


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