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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

The preface,   pp. I [i]-xxx PDF (27.2 MB)

Page iv

Thd P M  R  IF ACE.
I MI G H T here have e    nded my Preface; and perhaps the Reader would be
willing enoug
difmifs'd. But Something has been already flarted which will require a further
Difquifition.-----The I
have made of Knowledge is founded on this, That the feveral Branches thereof
commence either,
according to the Agency or Non-agency of the human Mind in refpeit thereof:
It remains to tak
up a little higher; and explain the Reafon and Manner of this Operation.
To confider Knowledge
lege, Society, Chapter, School, Hofpital, inn.  Public Edifices, Guild-
ball, PriJon, Tower, Arfenal, Library, Mufgum, Circus, &c. Solemn
Ceremonies, as Triumph, Tournamext, Carroufel, ~Ladril. Donative,
Medal, Trophy, Monsment, Funeral, Tomb, catacomb, &c.
'S L A W, or the Rules and Meafures of S o c i E T Y; publifh'd
in Au, Statute, Charter, Refcript, Conflitution, Decretal, Senatus-con-
fultum, Pragmatic Sanflion, &c. Recorded, in Infitute, Code, Novel,
Regifler, Pandet!, Corpus,l Domefday, &c. Kinds, Civil, Canon, Sump-
tuary, &c. Refpeing,    1f, Perfons, as the King; his Prerogative, Roy-
41ties, &c. viz. granting DifIpenation, Pardon, Commendam, Exemption.
Dignities, Franchifes. Freft, Park, Purlieu, Vert, Chafe. Impofl, Subftdy,
Toll, Tax, Aid, Hidage, Scutage, Prijage.  Waif E]ray, Efeheat, Trea-
fure Trove, &c. Officers and Magiftrates, created by Writ, Warrant,
Comm flon, &c. Their Oath, Tell, Declaration. Viftation, Procura-
tion, &c.   Corporations, Regular, Secular, &c. made by Charter,
Patent, &c. diffolved by 6Lyo Warranto, Mandamus,&c.     Subiefs,
as Denizen, NaturaliZat1in. Husband, Wife, Marriage, Concubine,
Separation, Alimony, Dower, Affinity, Baflard. Adaption, Emancipa-
tion. Lord,, Tenant, Villain, VaJfal. Client, Fqtron. Servant, Slave,
Retainer. Manumiffion, Enfranchifing, &c. Tenure, Service, Homage,
Fealty, Serjeanty, Efcuage, Relief, Guardian, Wardhip, Socage. Heir, Inte-
fJate, Anceflor, &c.   ^f,Eflates or Things; either Real, as Tenements,
Hereditaments. Freehold, Fee, Cu])omary, Tiail, Gavelkind, Court efy, &c.
In Reverfion, Mortgage, Hypotheca, 6cc.  Manor, Demefn, Honours.
Common, Glebe, Advowfon, &c. Acquired by Occupancy, Prefcription,
Defcent, Deed, Feoffiment, Fine, Recovery. Defeizance, Leafe, Devife,
Attournment, Invefliture, Livery, &c. Loft by dlienation, Mortmain,
Difeiftn, Abatement. surrender, Diocontinuance, Di/claimer, Forfeiture,
Refignation, Deprivation, Lapfe, &c. Or Perfonal, as Goods, chattels,
Emblemews, Annuity, Debts, Specialty, Recognizance; &c. Acquired
by Sucscefion, Heriot, Mortuary, Heir Loom. Teflament, Executor, Ad-
mini])rator, Ordinary.  Fudgment, Fieri facias, &c.-   36, Wrongs
or Injuries; either Criminal, and'to Perfons, as Treafon, Parricide,
Murder, Felony, Affault, Rape, Affin.    Adultery, Fornication, De-
fiaration, Polygamy, Herefy, 8cc. Profecuted by Indifment, Accufa-
tion, Ations of Confpiracy, and upon the Cafe, Habeas  Corpus, &c.
Punifh'd, with Hinging, Crucifixion, Wheel, Furca, Scala, llWory,
Tranfportation, Divorce, Scapbifm, &c.  Or Civil, and to Things;
as Trefpafis,' Nuifance, Deforcement, &c. Remedied by Writs of q~are
Impedit, Darrein Prefentment, Appeal, Atteint, Error, Right, Difceit, Soe-
perfedeas, Audita Jerela, &c. Suit, or Courfe of Proceedings vhereby
Redrefs is procured; including, if, Procefs, either by Bill, Summons,
Subpmena, Attachment, Capias, Exigqnt, &c. to which belong Appear-
ance, Attorney, Bail, Fffoigsi, Default, Nonfuit, Arraignment, &c. zf,
Pleading i whence Count, Declaration, Aid Praier, Voucher, Age Prier,
Bar, Abate, Releafe, Replication, Outlawry, Seque]) ration, &c. 3,
Iffue; whence Demurrer. 40, Trial; whence Proof, Evidence, Pre-
fumption, Oath, Affidavit, Affirmation. 5fury, challenge, Array, Ver-
die7. Battel, Duel, Champion, Purgation, Ordeall, &c. Paine fort cj
duret, Rack, Torture, &c. 5', Judgment; whence Arre]), &c.   6",
Execution; whence Scire facias, Reprieve, &c.
*6 T H E  0 L 0 G Y, or the Confideration of G o  D: his Nature
and Attributes, as Eternity, Ubiquity, &c.  His Unity, Trinity, &c.
Perfons, Hypoflafis, &c. Our Duty to him, difcover'd by Infpiration,
Revelation, Prophecy, & c. by the M ejfah, Evangeloijs, Apofiles, &cc.
In the Bible, Pentateuch, Hagiographa, Pfalter, Gofpel, Apocalypfe,
& c. Canon, Deuterocanonical, Apocrypha, &c.  Circumftances thereof,
Style, Allegory, Type, Parable, Myflical, & c.  Text, Verftow, Sep-
tuagint, Vulgate, & c. Paraphrafe, Targum, 6cc. Points, ßotatiettinnss
&c.    Matter thereof; Declarations, of Incarnation, Pafifon, Cruci-
fixion, Miracle, &c. Inunjun ions, as worar ip,Prayer, Sacrifice, &
c.  Sa-
craments, as Euchariri , Baptifn, & c.  Promiies, as Grace, fufli-
fication, &c.   Decreeses as Predeflination, Eletlion, Reprobation, cc.
Breaches on our Part, Sin, Apoflacy, Imputation, & c.   Remedies
thereof, by Repentance, Confelfion, & c.  Rewards and Punifnments
allotted thereto, Heaven, Hell, Refurreflion, Imroortality, & c.  His,
Miniflers, Angels, Devil, & c.  His Church, either Triumphant, as
Saints, Martyrs, Confeffors, Fathers, Dollars, & c. or Militant, &
c. Its
Offices, Creed, Liturgy, Decalogue, Doxology, Trifagion, &cc. Difipline,
Rites, e vc. as Abfoloution, Anathema, Excommunication, & c. Catechu.
.men, Confirmation, Genooflexion, & c.  Its Priefthood, as Bi/bop,
Priefi, Deacon, & c. Patriarch, Archbobi op, Prtmate, Dean, Canon,
Prebend, Archdeacon, Chantor, &Cc Their Enfigns, Mitre, Crozier,
Pallium, 6c. Their Ordination, Confecration, Collation, Impojition, &c.
IBenefices, Revenues, Tithes, &c. Places fet apart, as Church, Chapel,
ratory, &c. Cathedral, Parochial, Cardinal, &Cc. Choir, Nave, Altar,
Font, & c. Diocefe, P-ovince, 6c.   Afll mblies, as Synod, Council,
n c onv ,catiol't,  Con lory,  Chapter,  Presbytery,  &Cc. / e eafs,
 Fafis,  Lent,
Vigils, Efc. Faler, Epiphany, Pentecoji, Annunciation, Purification,
Prefentation , &c.-P. articular Syfteni or Profeflions thereof, viz.
Reforrn'd or Protf     as the cchnr rc of England, Lutherani/m, Cal-
vini/in, & c. Romifl or Latin ; its mafs, Breviary, Legend, c  c.
Trainfabjlantiation, Extreme Uncfion, Supererogation, Penance, c c.
Heierarchy; Pope,   Cardinal, & c. Secular, Regular, Meonk, Religios,
Prior, & c. O rder, Congregation, Monaflery,,General,&c. 3 fefuitCarthnftan,
Carmelite , Franc ifcan, Dominican, & c. Third Order, Cenobite, Ancho-
rite, Hermit, Recljufe, Monafeery, Cell,&6cc. Rule, Vow, Reform, No-
viciate, & Cc . I maae, Relicks, Saint, Virgin, Rofary, & c. Canonization,
Beatification, &c c. indulgence, i ubilee, Exorci/m, 8tc.  G ree,   iti
Aniholaguie   Prothefis,  Particles, &c.  Maronite,
moan, &c. Armenian, cophti, Solitary, &c.-Se
fies ; as Manichees, Gneflics, Arians, &c. Ebionites,
lenaries, Auartodeimans, &c. Montanijfs', Socinians,
Presbyterians, Anabaptifjs, Independents, Quakers, &
vetifls, Pre-adamites, &c. Dei]) Atheif, spinofifm,
its Talmud, Tradition, &c. Temple, Tabernacle, SaM
Ponmtf, Levite, Tribe, &c. Fpbod, Theraphim, Circu
Sanhedrim, &c. Rabbin, Doifdr, Cabbala, *Marorr
.,cu2.aucrre,  Joan r-Asflr~ Sir. *NM4,i~r551 thr  bouts.In
dA3"((1Cf~fV 1,e~J1VaFA, er % Vv 'C, .  .1a.rr snr -.  Zgs  . ---rs
Daft: hean, Hellenifl, &c. Paffover, Scenopegia, Gehenna, &c.-
Mahometan    Their Alcoran, mufti, Dervice, Mofque, Muuilman,&c,--
Heathen ; Their Idolatry, Thiogony, &c. Their Gods; Penates, Lares,
Lemures, &c. Panes, Sylvans, Nymphs, Tritonsp &c. Demi-god, Hero,
Fortune, Defliny, Damon, Genius, &c. Apotheofis, Sacrifice, &c. Feafl,
Leflrdtion, &c. as Eleufnia, Saturnalia, Cerealia, &c.  Minifters
of;  Rex, Pontifex, Flamen,    Veflal,  Corybantes, &c.  Games;
Olympic, IJlhmean, &c. Divination, Oracle, Pythian, Sibyl, &c. Au-
gur, Alfpex, &c. Temple, Fane, Paaod, 8cc.   SVqs;   as BRanini,
Bramans, Saebans, &c.
'7 L O G I C S, or the Confideration of I b E A s or No T I O N S
Their Kinds, Simpl, Complex, Adequate, &c. Difpofition, into Ciafes or
Categories, Predicaments, Predicates, &c.  Their Compofition, or Ar-
fociation into Axioms, Prepofitions, Problems, Theorems, Thefes, Hy-
pothefes.  Arguments, as Syllogifm, Enthymeme, Sorites, sophifn,
Dilemma, Crocodilus, cc. Their Refolution, Definition, Divifien, 6c.
into Premfles, Confequences, Terms, &c. Their Truth, Falitood, Evi-
dence, Demonfiration, &c. Operations therewith, as Argumentation,
InduHion, Difcourfitg, Philofophizing, &c. Difpuasaion, Diflint7ion,
traditlion, Redrufio ad abfurdum, &c.
15 C H Y M I S T R Y, including the Ufe of F I R E, Water, 4aths,;
Ferments, Menftruxms, Furnaces, Retorts, and other Inftruntents; to
change Animal, /egetable, and Fofil Bodies; by inducing Fufon, Pa-
trefaaion, Fermentation, Dilfolution, Fxhabltion, &c. and hereby
procuring Spirits, salts, oils. Acid, Alcaline, Aromatic, Urinous. wines,
Vinegars, Flewers, Calces, Cryftals, Soaps, Tartars. Regulus, Magifiery,
Extraf?, Elixir. acrufs, Minium, Litharge. nJinte~fence, Phofephorus,
AlcaheJ?, Philefopher's Stone, and the like; by the Operations of Dif-
tillation, Exprefjion, Cohobation, Sublimation, Rec5ification, cryflilliza.
tion, Calcination, Amalgamation, Digeflion, Precipitation, Vitrification,
Fixation, Tranfmutation, and the like.- Arbor Dianx, Jdurum Ful-
tnians, Artificial Earthquake, Magic, Divination, &c.
'9 O  P T I C S, including the Laws and Confideration of V r s s   oN,
and Vfible Obliefls; effeted by means of Light, its Rays. Their Re-
frangibility, Refiexibility, &c. Focus, Tranfparency, Opacity, shadow,
-Refledtion thereof, in Mirror, Looking-glafs, Catoptrc Ciflula,
&c. - Refraftion, in Lens, Prifm, Glafs, &c. Application, in Tele-
fcope, Micro/cpe, Magic Lanthorn, &c. Speaacle, Pole/ofcope, Polyhe-
dron, Camera Obfcura, &c.
20  PERSPECTIVE, orthePRojtcTroN of Pointslnes,
Planes, & c. in scenography, orthography, IchnographyAnamorphofis, &
PAINTING, orthe        DEs    GNINGOf Obje    s inClair-ob-
fcurre, Prtien,  c. with Ordonnance, Expreffon &c. Circumflances
hereof, Attitude, Contra]p , Group, &c.  Kinds, Limning, Miniature,
Camieux, Frefco, &cc. Enamelling, &toaic, &c.
P P  HO  NICS, or the Dofrrine of SO       UNDS, Voice, &c.
Their Modifications in Echo, Refonance, Whifpering-Place, .speaking-
Trumpet, &c.-      Their Tune, Gravity, interval, &cc. Tine, Tri-
ple, &c. exprefs'd by Ne te, Chord, &c.  Compariforis thereof, Con-
cord, as Untfon, Oflave, Third, Fourth, Difcord, 6c.  Compofition,
as M elody, Harmony, Counter-point. Symphony, s ynaulciaChime, Song,
Rh ythmus, &c.   Kinds, Genera, Mode, &c.     Circutmflances, Key,
Clef, Signature, Tranfpofttion, &c. Staff, Scale, Gammut, Slfaing,
Modulation, & c. I1nftrunmiets, Organ, Bell, Trumpet, Lyre, Cymbal,
violin, Harpfichord, &c.
13 HYDROSTATICS, or the Confideration OfFLUIDS;
their Speci4'c Gravity, Denfity, Fldr briur& . &C.  Infirunents to
m ea-
fure the fame, as Aresmeter, Hydroflatical Balance, &c. Sipphon, Tor-
rreelliaan, &c._MtiMotion thereof, in Pamp, Fountain, Spiral screw,
Hydrocaniflerium, Hydromamttic, &.c
2 4 PNEUMATICS, or the Confideration of the Ai R ; its
Weight, Deniety. Prejfure, Flaficity, & c. Condenfation, Rarefai'!isn,
Motion. Wind, &  c.  In Air-pum P, Sutrion, Vacuum, &c.     Mca-
fur'd  by Barometer, Thermometer,   Hygrometer,  Manometer, &c.
Anemometer, Windmill: 8 Cc .
25 MECH AN       CS, includin g the Sarudure andContrivance oo
MMA C H I N E S. as Balance, Steeyard, Pully, Polyfpafl, &c. Wheel, Clock,
Watch, Pendulum. Sprin. F ee &c.c&c. Clcpfydra, coach, Rota A-iflo-
telica, Perpetual Motion &c. Mdl.1 Prefs, Vice, Lath, Loom,
6cc. Operations of Swimming, Diviiig, Flyingg, cc.
a ARCH!-

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