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Perrault, Claude, 1613-1688 / Memoir's for a natural history of animals : containing the anatomical descriptions of several creatures dissected by the Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris
(1688)

The anatomical description of eight ostriches,   pp. 217-238 ff.


Page 232


2 32                    LkThe Anatomical Defcription
  The Diaphra&4me was not fingle, as in terrcfirial Animals, where there
is
but onePartition, which feparates the Parts contained in the T/horax from
thofe of the lower Venter: But there were feveral D)iaphrfemes, 'which-i
made
a great many feparations, by dividing the Cavity of all this part of the
Body,
which is called the Trunck, into fix other Cavities, by the means of five
Partitions, which may be taken for as many Diaphragmes
  There were four of thefil DliphrAgrnes or Partitions, wliole Situation
was
direafrhom top to bottom, and a fifth feated a CrolS. Of the four ftrait
ones, two were little, and two great; the little ones covered the Lungs,
which were fallened to the fides, and feparated them from the four upper
Bladders of the Lungs. The great Diaphragrnes which covered thefe Blad-
ders, as the little Ones covered the Lungs, left a great fibace in the middle
where the Heart and Liver were included together. Thle fifth Diiragme,
W hich was feated crofs-wife, going from the middle of one of the great Dii-
thragmes to the middle of the other, feparated the Iheart and Liver from
the Gizzard, the Intefines and other parts of the lower Belly, in which the
two inferiour Bladders of the Lungs were likewife held. So that the fix Cavi-
vities were, a great one of the lower Venter; another great one of the middle
of the Thorax, Ieated over the firil; two middling ones at the fide of the
fecorld,
which contained the four upper Bladders ; and two little ones at the tide
of
thefe middling ones, where the right and left Lungs were inclohed.
  Each of the little Diaphragmes, (which we call the Mudc/e of the Lungs~be-
caufe that it was flefly, and covered the Lungs,) had its Origine very flefhy,
which was divided into fix heads fafrened towards the extremity of the
great Ribbs, near the Angle which they do make with other little Ribbs
that fatten them to the Sternuvm, inftead of the Cartilages which knitt them
in Terrecfrial Animals. Thefe fix Heads did altogether produce a large
Tendon or Aponexrofs, which being couch'd on the Lungs,, went to joyn it
Rlf with the Aponeurojis of the other oppofite Mufdle, on the A 'trtebre
of the
Back, to which it was alfo Wtrongly conneded. The direction of thu, Fibres
of this Mufcle was Oblique, inclining a little towards the bottom, {fb ltit
its
Affion is to contrad the Thorax by clofing the Ribbs, and draft ing them
downwards.
  Each of the great Diaphragmnes,which was only a Membrane without MuF-
culous flefh,and confequently without Affion,and lerving only 1ol a partiti-
on,has feemed to us to meritt rather the name of Diapbra^,zzne,tha r the
twu ht-
tle ones that were Mufculous,and alfo than the Diipkragmc of TIerreftrial
Ani-
mals, which ferves for other purpofes than to Ifparate the upper Belly from
the lower; being principally imployed by its Motion in tze Ref iration.
which is called free, as are the Mutfles of the Tljorax for the Rcipirati-
on which is called Violent and forced, the which is pcrformcd by the Dilata-
tion and Confiridion of the Thorax.Each of thefL Diaphrzcv was jo\ nod at
the top, and at the fore-fide, along each Ribb of the Strntiv,., wh idch
was very
broad in our Oflriches, as it commonly is in Birds. At its back-part it iovn-
ed to the Aponcurofis of the Mutdle of the Lungs, and bLr the means of this
Apoxcurofis to the Vertibry of the Back: At the bottom it was fattened to
the tranfvtrfe Mufcle of the lower Venter.
  TKio Tranficrl DiapIhr.inme was fcated a little lowxer tla u thie bottom
of


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