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Perrault, Claude, 1613-1688 / Memoir's for a natural history of animals : containing the anatomical descriptions of several creatures dissected by the Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris
(1688)

The anatomical description of six porcupines and two hedge-hogs,   pp. 147-154 ff.


Page 149


                   .'Six PORCUPINES.
another blackifh a) ;d-Spongie one. Thefe Folds were not only in the furface
where they appea red, but they were through the whole Tooth, as was found
after it was brok -n.
  The Tongue mx ras at its extremity covered over with feveral little bony
Bo-
dies like Teeth.  The greatelt were a line in breadth: their extremitv was
keen and divid( d by three rays or cutswhich made as it were four Incifires.
  I The Ears w ere thinly covered'with a very foft Hair: they refembled thofe
of Man. In one of our Subjel~s they were found different in the upper part,
which was r jointed as the Ears of Satyrs are painted.
  The Eyes were little as in the Hog, riot exceeding four lines fi oro one
cor-
.ner to the other.  The Situation of the corners of this Eye was very extra-
ordinary, dcte great Cant /tb being much higher than the leffer.
  DireO dy over the Os plibis near the An'ffs there was a tumour or fwelling
tabout tl te bigncf of an Egg without Hair and Prickles.  In the middle of
,this tU fnour, and near the Anw, there was a little hote lets' than that
of the
Aniw.   Albertus reports that th e Porcupine h as two Anus's, by reafon perhap
pl
of th'is - fcond Aperture, which is defigned- for the Parts of Generation,
Whi- Kh are not externally diifLcrent ii- the two Sexes, almoff as it is
in the C1-
vet- Cat and Cajior, the Penis of the Male being concealed in the Poucil,
wh ich was made to come out through the hole adjoyning to the Axis, when
the; Pouch was preffed.
   The Skin being fioad, on its inter nal furface ippeared feveral wrinckles,
L ozienge-wife, about two lines in bignefs. The whole skin over the Back,
.2.nd Fiancks, was adherent to the Alufultlis carnt'fis, which ivas 11rong
and
,fleflie, efpecially along the Back, at the place -wwhore the firong prickles
are
faftned. This Membranous Mufcle had its Origine at the tranfverfe
;nd oblique Apophyfes of the Ve rtebrx of theNeck, From thence it was extend-
ed along the Vert&,rxe of the Back, and inferted it fIlf into the Offa
inno:i-
zata being by the way fafined to the Vertedre of the Spine. It was very ad-
herent, not only to the skin, as has been already declared, but likewife
to the
common Membrane of the Mufcles. On the internal furface of th is Muftle
there was a great compa ny of Nerves which were laid and interwoven like
a
Net. The skin was not only ftirred by thefe Mutcles, as it is in the generality
i )f Brutes, but it had likewile four others on each fide feparately to remnove
dif-
I 'crent places of the skin, as the great skinnie Mufcle is to remove the
whole
s kin. Thefe four Mufcles proceeded from the intercoflals, where they had
a . large taf/is, which terminated on a. little 'T'endon, like to the treble
of a Lute.
'i he Tendons of thefe four Mutcles were inferted into the skin which covers
t he Ribs and Flanks.
    The Cartilago Xtphoides was extraordinary large.  The Epiploon wlhich
def:
 c ended on the left fide to the 'Groin, was firmly fixed in this place to
the Pe-
 -     -   --Ai -L-,,..- $-.ol, fnl1- n^o.. #ril-e T-vpa-noc ne 1f1C.lJ ,r
 T- -i 1S
7 fdlU       UIU IIIL)L I14,iY  ilUW  'JWvE.  LI '.. 1LAL0.L1LL%3 a.)  UL
UIsally.  1JU  UIIVUi LU'.
Subjeffs it adhered to the Bladder.
   The Ventricle was almolf round, although divided into three unequal
Pouches. The middle one, which was the greatelt, deldended lower than
the others. The fuperiour Orifice was very firait. It was in the middle,
and dire&ly over the great Pouch. The inferiour Orifice was mightily
dila-
ted, being an inch and a half broad; fo that the Dwodenim feemed to be a
                                                                   fourth


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