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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Ventiducts - visible,   pp. 293-313 PDF (20.9 MB)

Page 294

VER                          r
Mood While in the Stomach: But one fingle Grain of Ruff
of rVemns immediately vomits. See EMETIC.
Hence, Syrups that have flood over-night in Copper Vef-
fels, create a vomiting.
It is alfo an excellent Medicine in Chronical Cafes:
Hence a famous Phyfician is recorded to have cur'd Charles V.
of a Dropfy by the Ufe of Copper.
Venus is diffoluble by all the Salts known, both Acid,
Alkaline, and Nitrous; nay, even by Water and Air, confi-
der'd as they contain Salt. See DISSOLUTION, SALT, bC.
'Tis from this common Reception of all MenfiruuMs,
that Copper is called Venus, q. d. meretrix publica, a com-
mon Proilitute: The others take the Denomination to have
been occafion'd by its turning of a Sea-green Colour, when
diffolved by Acids.
Mount of VENUS, Mons VENERIS, among Anatomifts,
is a little hairy Protuberance, in the middle of the Pubes
of Women; occafion'd by the more than ordinary Colle~tion
of Fat under the Skin in tjiat Place. See PUBES.
Among Chiromancers, the Mount of Venus is a little Emi-
nence in the Palmn of the Hand, at the Root of one of the
VERB, in Grammar, a Word ferving to exprefs what we
affirm of any Subject, or attribute to it ; as the Words is,
wnderfiands, hears, believes, &c. See WORD.
The Verb is thus called of the Latin [Verburn, Word, by
way of Eminence; as being the principal Word of a Sen-
tence. See SENTENCE.
The common Definition given by Grammarians, is, that
a Verb is a Word which betokens being, doing, or fuffering.
To conceive the Origin and Office of Verbs, it may be
obferved, that the Judgment we make of any thing, as when
I fay the Earth is round, neceifarily includes three Terms.
The firfrl, called the Subjell, is the Thing we affirm of,
e.g. Earth. See SUBJECT.
The fecond, called the Attribute, is the Thing affirm'd,
e. g. round. See ATTRIBUTE.
The third, is, connecis thofe two Terms together, and
expreifes the Aaion of the Mind, aJfirming the Attribute
of the Subjeft. This lafi is what we properly call the Verb,
and which fome of our later Grammarians, particularly the
Port Royalifts, chufe to call by a more fignificant Word, Af-
firmation. See AFFIRMATION.
The Reafon is, that its principal Ufe is to fignify AIfirma-
tion; that is, to fhew that the Difcourfe wherein that Word
is ufed, is the Difcourfe of a Man, who does not only con-
ceive Things, but judges and affirms fomewhat of them.
By this Circumfiance, a Verb is difiinguifh'd from
Nouns which alfo fignify an Affirmation, as affirmans affir-
matio; thofe only fignify an Affirmation, as that, by a
Reflecion of the Mind, is render'd an Obje&l of Thought:
fo, that they don't Ihew that the Perfon who ufes 'em affirms,
but only that he conceives an Aflrmation.
Tho the principal Ufe of Verbs be to fignify Affirma-
tion ; they alfo ferve to exprefs the other Motions of the
Soul : as to defire, pray, command, F-c. but this they only
do by changing the Mood, or Inflexion; which we 1hall con-
fider under the Article MOOD.
Here, we only confider the Verb in its primary Signfica-
tion, which is that it has in the Indicative Mood.
On this Footing, the Verb lhould have no other ufe, but
to mark the Connection which we make in the Mind, be-
tween the two Terms of a Propofition ; but the Verb effe,
to be, is the only one that has retain'd this Simplicity : nor,
in f{ricqnefs, has this retain'd it, but in the third Perfon ; as
eJl, is.
In effe&, Men being naturally inclin'd to fhorten their Ex-
prefiions, to the Affirmation they have almoft always added
other Significations, in the fame Word : Thus, e. g. they
add that of fome Attribute, fo as that two Words make a
Propofition ; as in Petrus vivit, Peter lives: where vivit
includes both the Attribute and Affirmation; it being the
fame thing to fay Peter lives, as that Peter is living. And
hence the great Variety of Verbs in every Language.
For, had the People been contented to give the Verb its
general Signification, without any additional Attribute, each
Language would only have needed one Verb, viz. the Verb
Subilantive eft, is.
Again, on fome Occafions, they alfo fuperadd the Subje&
of the Propofition, as Sum homo, I'm a Man; or vivo, I
live: And hence the diverfity of Perfons in Verbs. See
Again, we alfo add to the Verb, a Relation to the Time
with regard to which we affirm; fo that one fingle Word,
as cxnafti, fignifies that I attribute to the Perfon I fpeak,
the Aaion of Supping, not for the prefent Time, but for
the paft: And hence the great diverrity of genfes in moll
Perbs. See TENSE.
The diversity of thefe Significations, or Additions in the
fame Word, has perplex'd and deceiv'd many of our beft
Authors in the Nature of a Verb;5 and led 'cm to confider it,
)+ I                   VER
not according to what ;s edtential to it, which is to a
but according to tome of its accidental Relations.
Thus, Ariflotle, taking up with the third of thofe addi-
tional Significations, defines Verb to be Vox Agnificans cum
.empore; a Word fignifying Something with Time.
Others, as!Auxtorf, adding the fecond Relation, define it,
Fox flexilis cum tem ore @  perfona; a Word admitting of
divers Inflexions, in refpe& of Time and Perfon.
Others, taking up with the 6rfi of the additional Signifi-
cations, which is that of the Attribute, and confidering that
the Attributes Men ordinarily add to the Affirmation, were
Affions and Paffions; have fuppofed the Effence of a Verb
to confifd in fignifying Aqions, or Pajiions.
Lafily, Scaliger imagin'd he had made a great Difcovery
in his Book of the Principles of the Latin T'ongue, in fay-
ing, that the Diftinaion of Things into 'Permanentes, and
Fluentes, into what remain, and what pafs away, is the pro-
per Source of the Diflinclion between Nouns, and Verbs;
the firfi being to fignify what remains, and the fecond what
But from what we have faid, 'tis eafy to perceive, that
there Definitions are all falfe; and that the only true Defi-
nition is, Voxrignificans Xjffirmationem: This Definition in-
cludes all that is effential to the Verb ; but if one would
likewife include its principal Accidents, one might define it,
Vox 7gnificans Alrmationem, cum defignatione Perfonee,
Numeri,   ' Temporis; a Word which fignifies an Affirma-
tion, with a Defignation of Perfon, Number, and TenfQ;
which is what properly agrees to the Verb Subfilantive efi.
For as to other Verbs, confider'd as becoming different by
the union of certain Attributes, one may define'em thus i Vox
jignificans Affirmationem alicujus attributi, cum derignatione
Perfonxe, Numeri, E  7emporis; a Word which expreircs
the Affirmation of fome Attribute, with a Delignation of
Perfon, Number, and Time.
Verbs are varioufly divided; with refpec&.to the Subje&,
they are divided into, Afiive, Paffive, Neuter, &c. with re-
to their Infiexions, into Regular, and Irregular; Per-
Jonal, and Imperfonal; Auxiliary, Subftantive, &c.
VTERB Aftive, is a Verb which expreffes an Aaion that
falls on another Subjecl, or ObjeS. See ACTIVE.
Such are I love, I zvork, &c. which fignify the Adion of
Loving, Working, &c.
Of rhefe, Grammarians make two Kinds; the one call'd
Y'ranfitive, and the other intranfitive, or reciprocal See
VERB Paffive, is that which expreffes a Paflion; or which
receives the A61ion of foome Agent; and which is conjugated
in the modern Tongues with the Auxiliary Verb I am, je
fuis, jo fo, &c.  See AuxXLIARY.
Some don't allow of any Verbs Pa]fJve in thefe Langua-
ges : The Reafon is, that what we call pa/ive, is nothing
but the Participle of the Verb, join'd with the Auxiliary
Verb to be; whereas the Verbs TPaj,'ve of the Latin, &c.
have their particular Terminations. See PASSIVE.
VERB Neuter, is that which fignifies an A61ion that has
no particular Objecl whereon to fall ; but which of it felf
takes up the whole Idea of the Aftion: as, I fleep, thou
ya'wn'ft, he fnores, 'le >walk, you run, they fiand.
The Latins call 'em Neuters, by reafon they are neither
Aaive nor Paflive; tho the  have the Force and Significa-
cation of both: as I languib, fignifies as much as I am lan-
gui/hing; I obey, as much as I exercife Obedience, &c.
only that they have no Regimen to particularize this Signi-
Of there Verbs there are fome which form their Parts by
the Auxiliary Verb to have; as, I have flept, you have run.
Thefe, Grammarians call Neuters AChive.
Others there are, which form their compound Parts by
the Auxiliary to be ; as, to come, to arrive, &c. for we fay,
I am come, not I come, &c. Thefe are call'd Neuters PaJ:
VERB Subfiantive, is that which expreffes the Being, or
Subfilance which the Mind forms to it felf, or fuppofes in the
Objea; whether it be there, or not: as, I am, thou; art.
Auxiliary, or Heping VERBs, are thofe which ferve in
conjugating Aaive and Paffive Verbs: fuch are, I am, I
have, &c. See AUXILIARY.
The Abbot de fDangeau diflinguifhies all Verbs into two
general Kinds; Auxiliary Verbs, and Verbs which make
ufe of Auxiliaries.
This Diffinclion fome may tax as not very jufl; in regard,
Auxiliary Verbs Sometimes make ufe of Auxiliaries them-
felves- but this does not defiroy the Divifion: it only lhews,
that the Auxiliary Verb has two Formalities, or two diffe-
rent Qualities to be confider'd under; in virtue where-
of, it conflitutes, as it were, two Verbs.
The Verbs which make'ufe of Auxiliaries, he divides into
ACtive, Neuter, and Pronomninal.
Verbs Neuter he diflinguilhes into Neuters A~live, and
Neuters Pa,/ive. IPronominals he diffinguifhes into Identic,

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