University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
Link to University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
Link to University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
History of Science and Technology

Page View

Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Traducians - tribunician,   pp. 230-247 PDF (17.5 MB)

Page 247

r2! 47 1
Sound diljos'd betweeui two others, mikes iw Tthirds at
once, and of Confequence a 4ouble Harmony. See FIF'TH.
Hence it is, that in frio's, particularly, this Concord is
preferr'd' to that which divides the Oaffave into a Fifth and a
Fourth:. In regard that, if thete be a Concord on one Side,
there is a Difcord on the other; whereas here the Harmony
is compleat on both Sides.
Of the three Sounds which coispbfe the harmonical 7lria.<
the graveft is call'd the Fundamental, ot Bafis the acuteIlt
ii e. that which makes the Fifth, and vAhih terminates the
Concord upwards, is call'd the excluded or higkhef Sound;
and that which divides the Fifthfo agreeably into two Thirds,
is call'd the harmonical Mean.
The Divifiun of the Fifth into two Thirds, maidy be per-
form'd two Ways, viz;. 10. Harmonically, when the greater
Third is lowefi, and the lefs a-top; in which Cafe the
!1iriad is perfecf and natural.
20. Arithmetically, when the lefs Third is lowefi, and
the greater a top; in which Cafe the Triad is imperfedt and
flat. Both are good; but the latter not to be often us'd.
TRIBE,. TRIBUS, in Antiquity, a certain Quantity or
Number of People; when a Divifion is made ot a Nation
into Quarters or Diflricis.
The City of Athens was divided into ten T'ribes.--- the
Jewqb Nation into twelve Bribes, the Defcendants of the
twelve Sons of 7acob, viz. the Triles of uidah, of Reubei?,
Gad, -4her, D)an, Naphthali, Ephraim, MaM4affah, Simeon,
Levi, Ifachar, Zabulon, and Benjamin.
Thete, in ereA, make thirteen Tribes, oom twelve P1.
triarchs; by Reafon the Poflerity of ßfcfeph was divided
into two Tribes, that of Manafah, and that of Ephraim.
There were ten of thefe Tribes that revolted and follow'd
The Roman People was at firfi only divided inte three
Yiribes, and froni this Number three, tres, it was that the
Word Tribe, Tribus, took its Rife. --- This Divifion was ac-
commodated by Romulusi to the feveral Nations he had
tinited: The firfi confiled of the A/bans, the fecond of
the Sabins, and the third of a Mixtute of Fugitives, who
came to feek adt Afylum at Rome.
Servius Tullus fearing this Partition might occafion Sedi-
tions, divided the Inhabitants of Rome by Cantons; not by
Nations; accordingly, he difiributed the City into four
Quarters or Tribes; and by Reafon a great Number of Ci-
tizens had retir'd into the Country about, of thofe he cO\n-
pos'd 26 other Tribes ; fo that from his Time the Roman
People confifted of 30 Tribes.
In after-times, the Numbet of Tribes was e'ncreas'd to
3S; but they then ceas'd to be rang'd according to the
Quarters of the City. .-- The Diflribution depended on the
Cenfors, who form'd their Lift at Difcretion, frequently
confounding the Country Tribes with tmhfe of the City.
A Man was never abfolutely a Roman Citizen, unlefs he
had the 7us Tribus, i. e. till he were intitled to the Honours
of the Magilfrature, as alfo to i Right of voting in Affemblies
of the People: And this was what they call'd Yus kujiri-
Herie, the Inhabitants of the municipal Cif'es, were
only imperfec Citizensi as being of no Tribe. See CITr-
The Freedmen were oblig'd to purchafe this Right of
Tribe, which did not otherwife belong to thent, tho' they
were Citizens of Rome. See LrBERTUS;     I
The Names of the SS Tribes were, iO. the Palatina. 20.
the Suburauza. 3.- the Colli12a. 40. the Jfziuilina. 50. the Ro-
milia. 60. the Amilia. 70, the Crufumina. 8f. the Cornelia.
g9. the Fabia. xo0, the Galeria. ril. theLeomonia. t21. the
Afientina or Menenia. 1 3. the Ocriculana. 140.. the Papiria.
15o.the pollia. i60.thetPopilia. 170:the Pupinia. i80. the
Strgia. 9go. the Vegentina. 2o0. the Joltinia. 2 10. the Clare-
dia. 220. the Stellatina. 230. the Tromentina. 240f the Ar-
viens. z2o. the Sabating. 260. the Pomptihna. 27g. the 'ob-
lila. 28g. the Macia. 29g. the SrCaptiad ;oO. the Onfentinda,
31   h the Farnien.s3 33.2 the  3    heVßcrentina. 340.
the .'elina. 35f. the Jkpirina. in ancient Authors and In.
fcriptions, we meet with the Names of others LViz. RPinaria,
Saappinia, Camilla, Ceftia, Cluenztia, &c.;
TRIBRACHYS, in the ancient Profocfy, a Foot of Verfe,
confiftin'g of three Syllables, and thofe all fbort, as Afielias'.
The Word is form'd from the Greek, -es three, and
jqervt, fhort.
TRIBUCHI, and TREBUCHET, a Tumbrel, of Cucking.
fool. See Cu cXtING b-ol.
TRIBUNAL, jugment-Seat, the Seat of a Judge. be
The 1ibsuna~lin a Court of Juficeis property theteat o
Bench whereon the judge and his Afociata air placed.
The Word is Latin, anid takes its Origin' fod a Seat'
faised from the Ground, wherein the Tribsne'of the Amg'
People was plae'd to admlinifter 'ulftice. See Tirxzix.
Tribun1*al, fTribuna; or Tribne, anmong the Ancients, wa
ilfo a Place froni whende the People were harangu4d.
Among the Romans; it was an Eminence near the Tnie.
pte, in the Place call'd Pro Rofiriss where the People werc
barngued in Tribes.
The P'rench Architecis liket ife ufie Word Tribune foi
a Gallery or Eminence in a Church, oig other Place, wherein
the Mufic is plac'd for a Sy inphony or Concert.
TRI BUNE, TRIBUN JS Miliutuz or AIlitaris .an Officr
in the Roman Army. See TAtBUNijS',
TkiBUNE, TRIBUNUS Plebis, in Anticiuity, a Pvi.:7P
Magiftrite, chofen out of the Populace, o proted. them
againft the Opprefflon of the Great, and to defemnd the Li-
berty of the People Againak the Attemsts of the Senate and
The Tribunei of the 'Aople we'e firfl eflablifl'd in the
Year of Rome 259.   The firft Defign of the Creation, wa5
to fIelter them  from  the Cruelties of tflrers, and to en-
gage them to quit the Avwntine Mdunt, whither they had re.
tir'd in Difpleafiure.
Their Number, at Eirtl, was but two; but the next Year;
under the Confulare of A: Po/ihumus Artin.fiui, and Ca/tvfl
/ifcel72nus there were three more added; and this Number
of five was aftetwards increas'd by 1, 9reboijus to ten;
Tne Appellation   r'5ibune was given them, by reaifon
they were at firft choflen out of the lribzbues of the Army.-
The Tribunes vi'ere, as it Were, the Ledders and Ouardi-
ans of the People. --- They call'd Affe-mblies of the People
when they pleas'd; and in thofe Affernblies frequently an-
null'd the Decrees of the Senate. Nothing could be con-
cluded without their Confent, which they exprels'd by luib-
fcribing the Letter Tat the Bottom of the becree. They
had it in their Power to prevent the Execution of any De-
cree, without giving any iReafon for it, and mierely by fub-
fcribing Meto.
They forihe(imes call'd the Confuls and Diaator to aicount
fbr their Condud, before the People.
IA ugftuuS himfelf was 7Tribune for 3 7 Years; Yibcrius al
futn'd the fame Quality; as likew ife did his Succetlhr, fig.
nifying the Year of rheit Tribunate on their Medils an4
Cdins: But their Defign, herein, was onil to pofrefs themu-
eilves of all the Authority, that there might be no-body
to oppofe them. S-e TRIBtNICI A i
TRIBtJNiCIAN, a Term among Antiqu~tries and Me-
dallifls.--- The Tribunician Po'zeer, was the Dignity, Office,
or Authority of a i9b;une of the Pebpli. See Tkrsntw.
This Power was affni'd by the Emperors; anid makes one
of the chief Titles ihey bear ori their Medals: 'I'he Qua-
lity was firtl iniroduc-d by Azz~,gquus, to keep the Sovereiglmi
Authority over the other Maifirates, without either takin,
that of Di~lator or King. Indeed it was offer'd to ,7ulius'
Cefar; but he defpis'd it. Auguzflus is the firfl who us'd it,
and his Succeffors follow'd his Eyample. -- The; reckocn
the Years of their Emp&6l on their Medali by thofe of their
Tlribunician Pb'ier.
This Power was fometim6s given them for a certain Num-
ber of Years, and fometrimes for ever. Sofietitnes the Em-
perors would communicate the P6wer to fuich as they aflb-
ciated, or as they intended to fucceed them: And Tiberius
held it fifteen Years with Aigzftle. But this Prafcice on!y
obtain'd till th Time of Valcrian and Gollian, After the em
uie only find T R. P. I1. in C6lau.dius T R. P. V, ion Alfelian;
and T R. P. in TPrecbus.
This, however, is to [Ye underiood of MIedals; for in In-
fcriptions we find it after that Time.
Cardlinal Noris and F. 1'Pagi haev difpured about this fri-_
bunician 'Po'ver, wherein it confi'tled. -- The firtt Maintains,
that it did no at arl} di'fer fromn that of the ordinary Tri-
bun'es, which confiPted in three Thioogs, rf. In a Right of
oppofing all the A,'is abd Refilutions of the other Magi-
firates. 2'. In rhat it render'd their Perloi; facred X'nd ibvio-
lable. 30, In a Right of making  diifs .acnd Laws.
F. 'agi afrerts, that it made an Addition to th'e PouF e r'f
the Tribunes i' that the Privie;ge it had of nit'iing Edias,
was more amnple than that of thle ordinary Tribunes; be-
fide", that it carty'd with it 2' Power of conveaing the C'enate
st Plreafure.
IbM. Sanaheimh' ifs of F. Taerg's Opinioir: Hfe blkleves tarr
t     re Tibunicli Po.'ser had mueh' the Ad'vantage of the
Tribluinate, to. In that it was peculiar to the Pafricia'ns,- andf
did not reduce the FIerfn who held it to ;he Degee of ai
Plebeian. 20,. In thart it Wias noi coifin'd t' the City ot
Rome aloone, like the other, but extended throughoit thi,
Empire; as well as the Piocontulir Power, whicb wa-3ufrally
annex'd to it. 3o. That the Dignity of the Tfi iuni uwa
inferior to that of the  Pretors; lhrrea's thie Tr'uziia~ j
TPoizf oF thle cafirs confjd,'~ io6ing to  tiis, a So-
vereign Authoi ry over all -Magi ltrafes, atrd renhderq fuh a'
It was commuhicalted' to., teual io tbe Ei    ahori, Ad cvert
their Collegues in the Empire: Beffde the Powei 6f op
pofing. the Erte#rFiits &faf thM 4hi M;ifira:es3    andj <
! I
r .  s~~~~~~~1

Go up to Top of Page