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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

S - sapping,   pp. 1-20 PDF (18.7 MB)

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bath, is meant, the fpending it in Prayer, Praife, Eec.
not in worldly Concerns. The firft Petition in the Lord's
Prayer is, Hallowed, or farffiped, be thy Name: By
which is meant, Let thy Name be ever accompanied with
Bleffing and Praife.
SAN CTION,the Authoritygiven to fome judicial Aa;
or that, whereby it becomes legal and current. The
Royal Affent gives the Sanffion of Statutes, to all Bills
in Parliament that have patled each Houfe Thrice.
See PARLIAMENT. The Word is form'd from the Latin
Sancire, to eflablifh.
SANCTUARY, among the .e-s, the          holieft and
mofi retired Part of the Temple of .7erufalem; wherein
was preferved the Ark of the Covenant ; and into which
No-body was allowed to enter but the High Prieff, and
that only once a Year, to intercede for the People. The
SanCluary, called alfo Sandism Santlommrn   or Holy of
Holies, is fuppofed to be a Type or Figure of Heaven
and of Yefus Chrijf the true High Prieft, who is afcended
thither to make Interceffion for us. Some will have it,
That the whole Temple was called the Sanauary; and
that the Sanclum Santlorum, where the Ark was kept,
was only a little Chapel or Oratory therein. See TEMPLE.
Weight of the SANCTUARY, to examine a Thing by the
Weifht ot the San~luary, is to examine it by a jufk and
equa Scale; in Regard among the 7ezvs, 'twas the Cu-
Itom for the Prieis to keep Weights of Stone, to ferve as
Standards for the regulating ot all Weights by; tho'
there did not differ from the royal or profane Weights.
SANCTUARY, in our ancient Cufloms, an Afylumn, or
lace privileged by the Prince for the Safeguard of
Mens Lives, who were guilty of Capital Crimes. See
ASYLUM.    'Till Henry the VlIlth, all our Churches
and Churcb-yards were Saniluaries; and protedted Tray-
tors, Murderers, Eec. if within Forty Days they acknotv-
ledged their Fault, and Submitted themlelves to Banilh-
n5ent; and during that Time, if any Lay-man expelled
them, he was excommunicated; if a Clerk, he was made
irregular: After Forty Days no Man might relieve them.
St. Johns of Beverly, had an eminent Sanftfuary, called
by the Saxons, A Seat of Peace: So had St. Martin's le
Grand, in London. Rippon had the like granted by
Jhfitlafe, King of the Mercians: So had St. Buriens
in Cornwal, granted by King Athel/Jan, Anno 936 ' and
Wejlcnfliner the like, granted by Edward the Coniefror.
In Scotland they call the Sanluary, Girthole, or Grithol.
The Saxons alfo called it Frodmortel. See ABJURATION.
SANCTUARY, is alfo ufed in the Romifh Church for
the Chancel, or that Part of the Church wherein the'
Altar is placed, incompafed with a Rail or Balluflrade.
SAND, a fine, hard gravelly Earth, of great Ufe in
Building, and many other Arts and Manufatures, as in
the making of Glais, in Plumbery, Foundery, Wc. There
are Three Kinds of Sands, diffinguifhed by the Places
whence they are drawn: :viz. Pit-Sand, River-Sand, and
Sea-Sanld. See EARTH.
The Ufe of Sand in Building, is as an Ingredient in
Mortar: See MORTAR. For this Ufe, Pit-Sand is of all
others the bell; and of Pit-Sind, the whited is always the
worfl. Of River-$and, that found in the Falls of Wa-
ters is beff, becaufe moft purged. Sea-Sand is the wormi.
'Tit Sand, as being fat and tough, is mofi ufed in Walls
and Vaults. River-Sand ferves for rough calling. All Sand
is good in its Kind, if when fqueezed and handled it crack-
les; and if being put on a white Cloth, it neither "flains
nor lakes it foul. That Sand is naught, which, mixed
with Water, makes it dirty and muddy, and which has
been long in the Air; for fuch will retain much Earth and
rotten Humour. Hence fome Mafons wafh their Sand
e'cr they ufe it. The Sand of' Puzzuolo, gDe Lorme ob-
ferves, is the beft in the World; especially for Mari-
time Building. See PuZZUOL. Some diffinguifh a Male
sand, which is of a deeper Colour than another Sort in
the fame Bank or Bed, called Female Sand.
The Sand whereof Glafs is made, is white and grit.'
ty, full of little fparkling Grains. See GLASS.
The, Sand ufed by Founders, is Foffile. 'Tis properly
a yellow fat Earth, whereof they make their Moulds, for
the Cafling of little Works; whence it is they fay, Cajling
n Sand. YSee FOUNDERY. The Plumbers alfo ufe Sand
to mould feveral of their Works, particularly large
Sheets. To prepare the Sand for thefe Sheets, they wet
it lightly, fir and work it with a Stick, then beat and
plane it. .See PLUMBERY.
W SAND, in Agriculture, is one of the Three great Kinds
of Soil; 'which are Sand, Clay and  arth or loam  The
Properties,* ,Uc. whereof fec under the Artidcl SELL.
M. de la Qintisw attributes all the Diference we fiWd
in Soils, to the different Quality of Sands mixed in
them. Soft Sands, according to him, make a fot, gentle
Earth. UOnuous Sands, a fTiff Earth. Coarfe SanS a
rough untrafable Earth, FOc.
SAND is alfo applied to dry, crumbling Earths, which,
wanting any Fatnefs to bind them together, the Wind
eafily breaks into Dufl, and carries them away. In this
Senfe it is that Travellers tell us, the Caravans in Africa
are frequently loft, and buried under Clouds of Sand,
tore up by Whirl-winds; and Sometimes heaped up in-
to Mountains. The Defarts of Lybia are mere S4nds3
and hence their Sterility.
unlarnor  rr C~n -- n^nofer of 4mall Trnnfna",nv
Pebbles, naturally found upon the Mountains, not
r-fl .. _ ...            ; :_  Rn-
I Brown,
wafhed up very white Pebble.
Flamboroulgh Read, of which
the Light-Houfe there is
Calais Sand, burns reddilh,but
falls not in Water.
Seaton-YBanks, near Hartlepood.
on the fee's Mouth; B]'-
crick in the Gravel-pit there,
a Vein of exceeding fine
The Pillow Sand in the sal-
In a Spring at Heflingron.
Acome near rork, drifted San.
Hutton-Moor, wafht.
Dthrop Fells.
Ouze at Tork.
Nid at Mountain.
Dug   up at Rawcif' near
Wharf at Ickly and Dentou.
Air at Carleton in Craven.
Eure at Craven.
Santon in lincolniblire.
Skip tith-Common.
lFrom Lime- At -in Torkibte.
Soft or fmooth, flone,withMi- A 'Vein at Of)ell-
with flat Parti- caofGlittering  Beacon, in Lincoln-
cles           ( Particles,  (- ire.
Silver-like  Sea-n   about the Scil.
Iv Iflanda.
. In Cleved, and about
Ouze Dul, or Sediment
at Rawclif.
A Vein of Mica in Hef-
1ington Gravel-pit.
Mica Argentea in Ref-
Sand Rock, near Rip-
p7on, plentifully.
lMica Area of CJeve.'
.Gold-like _  land.
Of Wejfmoreland
SANDAL, in Antiquity, a rich kind of Shoe or Wear'
for the Feet, made of Gold, Silk, or other precious Stuff,
ufed by the Roman and Greek Ladies; confifting of a
Sole, with a Hollow at one Extreme th embrace the Ancle.
!/erence fpeaks of this Sandal, Utinam tibi committigari
videam Sandalio caput: I wilh Ihe wou'd break your
Head with her Sandal. Apol was fometimes caled San-
dalarius, the ReafIn of which Appellation has given
great Perplexity to the Criticks; fome derive it from a
Street called Sandalarius, becaufe chiefly inhabited by
Sandal-Makers, wherein that God had a Temple: But
others, with more Probability, derive the Name of the
Street from  that of the God!, and take Apollo to have
been thus called from his effeminatc Drefs, as if he wore
Womens Sandals.
The Shoe anciently wore by    the Pope,  Bithops,
Prietfs, Uec. when. they officiated, was alfo calledSandal';
beingfuch as was fuppofed to havebeen'woreby6f. 'ear.
tholomew. ?Aluin obferves. That there was f   Dife
rence betwen 'the Sandals Of Blhops, Pries,'   Dea-
cons. Monks were not alowed to weSandls e
in Travelling, as is obfervedby  C n', S    Sa  s

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