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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

S - sapping,   pp. 1-20 PDF (18.7 MB)

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of a befieged Place. Pearl a Saltier Ruby, the Coat of
Lord Mccesfel.d.
SALTNESS, the Quality of Something impregnated
with Sat.- The Sa;tnefs of the Sea, Lakes, &c. is a
Thing that has long perplexed the Philofophers to ac-
count for. Some take it to be the Elfed of the dry,
adult, and even laline Exhalations, which the Sun raites
from the Earth, and the Winds, and Rains discharge in-
to the Sea. And hence, fay they, it is, that the Sea is
found more trackijh near the Surface, than towards the
Bottom. Others contend, that the Sun being continually
extracting the purefi and fubtileft Parts from the
Water; the coarfer Parts remaining, being exalted and
toncofted by this Heat, acquire by little and little,
their Degree of Saltnefs. Others, as Father Blouhours,
will have it, That the Creator gave the Waters of the
Ocean their Saltnejs at the Beginning, not only to prevent
their Corruption, but alfo to enable them to bear greater
Burthens. Bernier feems to he nearer the Matter, when
he afcribes the Saltnefs of the Ocean, to the Foffile or
Alineral Salts brought into it by the Rivers, and diffol-
ved in the Water.
Dr. Halley, in an exprefs Difcourfe of the Sartnefs of
the Ocean, in the Philofopkical 7'ranjalions, obferves,
That all the Lakes in the World are Salt, fome more,
fomne lefs than the Ocean; which, in this Cafe, may be
efleemed a great Lake it felf And that all the Vapours
exhaled by the Sun from Lakes, are perfealy frefh; fo
that all the faline Particles brought in by the Rivers re-
main behind, while the frefh evaporate. Hence 'tis evi-
dent, their Saltnefs mull be continually augmented. Now
if this be the true Reafon of the Saltnefs of Lakes, 'tis
probable the Saltnefs of the Ocean it felf arifes from
the fame Caufe: Hence we are f    hrnilhed with a Method
of efimarting the Age of the World, by observing the
Increafe of Salnefs in the Waters of Lakes; and com -
puting in how long Time the Ocean might, at that
Rate, arrive at its prefent Saltnefs. See LAKE.
The Count de Marigli obferves, That in Provence, the
Bottom of the Sea is wholly flony, and nothing but a
Continuation of the Mountains of the Cevennes; being
even found to confiff of feveral Strata; among which,
are Salt and Pitcoal: And hence he derives the Saltnefs
and .Bitternefs of the Sea-Water.
SALTS, or Sauts, in the Manage, the Leaps or
Vaults of a Horfe; from the French Saut, of the Latin
Saltus, a Leap, Dance, &c. A Step and a Salt is a high
Air, wherein the Horfe riling, makes a Curvet between
Two Salts, or Cabrioles; fo as to mount before, and
fling back with his hind Feet. Two Steps and a Salt is
a Motion compofed of Two Curvets, ending with a
CaLTUARIUS, in Antiquity, an, Officer, Servant or
Slave among the Romans, gG. who had the Care and
Cuftody of a Country Houfe, with Lands and Woods,
and who was to look to the Fruit, the Fences, Tec.
in Nehemiah, cap. ii. v. 8. mention is made of an
Officer of this Kind; Cuftos Saltus Regis, which Saci
interprets, Keeper of the King's Forefi; but he was
more; having not only the keeping of a Forell, but of
,a Houfe with a Forefl. Saltus being here ufed- as Stork
'for a Houfe of Pleature; becaufe Gardens are the princi-
pal Part. -  In the Laws of the Ldobards, Shltuarits
is aln Officer who has the Guard of the Frontiers.
SALTUM, as, Ordination per SALTUM. See Okni-
SALTUS, in Law-Books-, a high         Wood.    See
'Bosc  s.
SALTZ, or Sultz, a Pickle mifade of Salt, difiolved
by the Coldnefs or Moifture of a Cellar.
SALVAGE-MONEY, is a Recompence allowed by
the Statute and Civil Law, to fuch 'Perfons as have af-
*fifled in faving Merchandizes, Ships, &.c. periffhing in
Wrecks, or by Pyrates 'or Enemies. ' This ufually was
a Tenth Part of the Value of the Things faved. See
SALVATELLA, in Anatomy, ha famtous Branch of
the Cephalic Vein, paffing over the 'Metacarpus, between
the Ring Finger, and the little Finger. Several Phyfit
ciansX in 'Imitation of the Arabs, recommend Bleeding
in-the SalvZatella, as proper in Tertian and Quartah
Aues, and mob Hypochondriac Difeafes.
SALVE, among the Romanifs, the firfi Word of a La-
rin Prayer or Sequence adrefed-to the Virgin, and fug
after Coniplines; as alfo upon -the Point of executing i
Criminal.  DUrandus fays,'TWas compofed by  Per   1i-
3hop of Comnpoftela. The Cuflom of Singing the Salve
Regina, at the Clofe of the Office, was begun by Order
of St. Dominic;    and firfl, by the Congregation of
Dominicans at .Bolcgne, about 1137. Gregory IX. firfl:
appointed it to be general. S.  e     i d dthe Con.
'lufion, O drulcis! 0 pia, &cc.
6]                   SAM
SALVER, a flat Dub, ufually of Silver or other rich
Metal, ufed to fet Glaffes on to firve Wines and other
Liquors. The French call it Sous-cotppe, under-cup. The
Itaians ufe to prefent a Salver, with feveral Kinds of
Wines, with this Complement, Si non e buonofatte lo.
*SALUTATION, the Ac1ion or Ceremony of Saluting,
Greeting, or paying Ref'fe&, or Reverence to any one,
There is a great Variety in the Forms of Salutation;
We falute God by Adorations, Fra ers, O. Kings, by
Genuflexion, &c. In Ey.gland, Lec. we falre one anqther
by uncovering the Head, inclining the Body, ec. The
Orientals by uncovering their Feet, laying their Hands on
the Breafi, nc. The Pope makes no Reverence to any
Mortal but the Emperor of Gerrnzaiy, to whom he htoops
a very little, when he admits' him to kils his Mouth.
-In the Army, the Officers falute by certain or-
derly, fludied Motions of the Pike, Lec. 'Twas
held by the Ancients, That the Statue of Nemn0on, one
of the Horfes of the Sun, in a Temple in E4pt,    a
lured that Luminary every Morning at his Riling. I he
Deceit confided in this, That the Statue being hollow,
when the Warmth of the Morning began to ratify the
included Air, it was driven out thro' a narrow Dudt in
the Mouth: Thus making a gentle Murmur, which the
Priefts interpreted a Neighing.
At Sea, they falue by a Difcharge of Cannon, which
is greater or lef, with Ball or without, according to the
Degree of Refpe&l they would 1hew. Ships always falute
with an odd Number of Guns; Galleys with an even
one. A Vefel under the Wind of another, is always
obliged to fira/te firfl. To ralute with Mufquets, is to
fire -One, Two or Three Volleys; which is a Method
of Salutation that fometimes precedes that of the Cannon;
and is chiefly ufed on Occafion of Feafrs. After the
Cannon, they fometimes alffof alute with the Voice; which
Salutation alfo occafionally obtains where they carry no
Guns, or don't care to difcharge any. Saluting Smith the
Flag, is performed Two Ways; either by holding it cloe
to the Staff, fo as it can't flutter; or by firiking it fo
as it can't be feen at all, which is the moat refbe6tful Sa-
lr.taion. Salmtixg 'vith the Sails, is performed by hover-
ing the Top-fails half Way of the Mafts. Only thofe
VTeelsh which carry no Guns, falute with the Sails.
When there are teveral Ships of War together, the Com-
mander alone falutes Father Fournier has an exprefs
Treatife of Sea.Salutes and Signals. See SIGNAL.
The Angelical Salutation, is an Addrefs which the
Roekanit s make to the Virgin; containing the Form
wherein the Angel faluted her, when he acquainted her
with the Myflery of the Incarnation See AVE MARY.
SAMARITANS, an ancient Sea among the 7ews';
*ill tubfifbing in fome Parts of the Levanr, under the
fame Name. Its Origin was in the Time of Rehoboam;
under whofe Reign, a Divifion was made of the People
of IJrael into Two diftincl Kingdoms. One of thefe
Kingdoms, called Yudah, confifled of fuch as adher'd to
ReAoboam, and the Houle of David; The other retain'd
the ancient Name of Ifraclites, under the Command
of 5eroboam. The Capital of their State 'was Samarih;
and hence it was they were denominated Samari tans. Sal-
manazar, King of . ijria, having conquered Samnaia, led
the whole People Captive into the remotefl Parts of his
Empire ; and illed their Place with Colonies of !abyl-
nians, Cutheans, and other Idolaters. Thefe finding
themselves daily defiroyed by wild Beafis, defired an
Ifraelitofb Prieft to inftruA them in the ancient Laws and
Cuftoms of the Land they inhabited. This was granted
them; and they thence-forth ceafed to be kincomimoded
with  any Beafts.  However, with the Law of akfes,
they fill retained fomewhat of their ancient Idolatry.
The Rabbins'fay, They adored the Figure of a 'Dove on
Mount 6erizirn. See Father Souier. Be this as it will,
'tis certain, the modern S'&4ait#ans are far from all Ido-
latry. S  e  of the mfiN" learned among the 7ewl
Dodorst ow,) That they obefrve the Law-of Aofes more
rigidly 'thin the J7e-ws themfelves. They have a He-re-zu
Copy of the ,entaievch, difcering in Iome Refpets from
that of the Yewsi and written in different Charaders,
commonly called 'Samaritan Charadersi, which Origen,
9erom, and other Fathers an'd Criticks, ancient and mo-
aern, take to be' the primitive Charaifefs of the ancient
Hebrews ; tho' others maintain the contrary. The, Point
of Preference, as to Purity, Antiq uty, fE$'c of the
Two   Penitreuch's, is alt  dilputed  by vtite  modern
triticks. See 'PENTATEVC11.
The Samaritans are now very few in Number; tho'
'tis not very long, ice they pretended to have Priefi,
defcended diredly fom Abraam. 'They       ere chiefly
found atGaza, Nepolis (the' ancient i
Afro, &cu  They had a Temple or Chapelon .Mon
Gerizim, where they perfoimed their Sacrifices. Ae0
alier, being curious to know their U g  wrote to the

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