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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

M - mapparius,   pp. 478-497 PDF (19.4 MB)


Page 489


( 489 )
Right which the Lord has, on the Death of the Chief of
a Family Mainruortable (i. e. fubjea to this Right) of ta-
king the bef{ Moveable in the Houfe i or in default of
that, they ofFer'd him the Right Hand of the Deceafed,
in token that he could ferve him no longer. This Right
was not uniform; fame People were Main-mortable in all
their Effecs Moveable and Hereditary; others in one
only.
MAINOUR, Manour, or Meinour, in Law, fignifies the
thing that a Thief takes away or fleals. Thus, to be ta-
ken with the wManour, is to be taken with the Thing flolen
about him. If the Defendant were taken with the Ma-
nour, -nd fo carried to Court, in antient Times they
would arraign him on the Mainour, without any Appeal or
Indikament. The word comes from the French Mainier or
Mainaver, tohold in the hand.
MAIN PRISE,, in Law, the taking or receiving a Man
into friendly Cuflody, that otherwife is or might be com-
mitted to Prifon; upon Security givern for his forth-coming
at a Day afIfgned. They who thus undertake for any,
are call'd Mainpernors, becaufe they receive him into their
hands; whence alfo comes the word Mainpernalle, deno-
ting thePerfon who may be thus bailed. See Bail.
Manwood makes a great deal of difference between Bail
and Mainprife: for he that is mainprifed is already faid to
be at large after the Day he is let to Mainprife till the
Day of his Appearance i but 'tis otherwife where a Man
is let to Bail to four or two Men, by the Lord Juflice in
Eyre of the Foreff, or any other Judge, until a certain
Day i for there he is always accounted by the Law to be
in their Ward and Cuflody for the Time ; and they may,
if they pleafe, keep him in Prifon all that time. 6o that
he who is fo bail'd, Jhall not be faid to be at large, or at
his own liberty.
Mainprife is alfo an Undertaking in a Sumn certain: Pail
anfwers the Condemnation in Civil Caufes, and in Crimi-
nals, Body for Body.
The Author of the Mirror of Yuflice fays, that Pledges
are thofe which bail or redeem any thing but the Body
of a Man, and Main-pernors thofe that free the Body -
Pledges therefore belong properly to real and mix'd
.Aaions, and Main-pernors to perfonal. The word Main:
prike is compounded of the French Main, Hand, and prins,
taken.
MAINTENANCE, in Law, is the maintaining or up-
holding a Caufe or Suit between others, either by Word,
Writing, Countenance or Deed: Metaphorically taken
from the fuccouring a young Child, that learns to go by
one s hand; and ufed in the evil part in fome of our
Statutes. When a Man's A& in this kind is efleem'd
Maintesiance, and when not, fee Brooks and Kitcbin. There
lies a WVrit againfi a Maintainer, call'd a Writ of Main-
tenance.
MAJOR, in the Art of War, a Name given to feveral
Officers of different Qualities and Funtlions.
Major-General is he who receives the General's Orders,
and delivers them out to the Majors of the Brigades, with
whom he concerts what Troops are to mount the Guard,
what to go on Parties, what to form Detachments, or to
be fent on Convoys, &,c. It is his bufinefs alfo to view
the Ground to incamp on, and he is next Subordinate to
the General and Lieutenant-General. See General.
Major of a Brigade, either of Horfe or Foot, is he who
receives Orders, and the Word, from the Major-General,
and gives them to the particular Majors of each Regi-
ment. See Brigade.
Major of a Regiment of Horfe, is the firfi Captain of the
Regiment, and commands in the abfence of the Maitre
de camp.
Majorof a Regiment, is an Officer, whofe bufinefs it is,
to convey all Orders to the Regiment, to draw it up, and
exercife it; to fee it march in good Order, to look to its
Quarters, and to rally it, if it happen to be broke in an
Engagement, Lec. He is the only Officer of a Regiment
of Foot, who is allowed to be on horfeback in time of
Service ; but he rides, that he might fpeedily get from
place to place, as occafion ferves. See Regiment.
There is alfo in a Garifon an Officer next to the De-
puty-Governour, which is call'd the Town-Major: He
ought to underfland Fortification, and hath charge of the
Guards, Round, Patrols, and Centinels.
There are alfo Aids-Major, Drums-Major, and other Offi-
cers; fo call'd by reafon of fome Seniority or Preroga-
tive that they have over the refm.
MAJOR, in Law, is a Perfon who is of Age to manage
his own Affairs. By the Civil Law, a Man is not a Ma-
jor till the Age of e 5 Years; in Entgland he is Major at zi,
and in Normandy at 20.
MAJOR, in Logic, is underflood of the firfi Propo-
fition of a regularSyllogifm. 'Tis call'd Major, becaufe
it has a more extenfive Senfe than the Mnor Propofition,
As ctntaining the principal Term. See Syllgogijm.
MAL
MAJOR and MINOR, in Mufic, are fpoken of tid
Concords which differ froin each other by a Semi-tone.
There are Majorand A1norThirds,$c. TheMajorTone is
the Difference between the 5 th and 4th, and theMajorSemi-
tone is the Difference between the Major 4th and the 3d;
TheMajorTone furpaffes the Msnor by aComma. See Concord.
MAJOR-DOMOj an Italian Termi frequently ufed to
fignify a Steward.
The Title of Major-Domo was formerly given in the
Courts of Princes to three different kinds of Officers.
ift, To the Officer who took care of what related to the
Prince's Table or Eating, otherwife call'd Eleater, Prxe-
fe2us Menfxg Arcbitriclinus, Dapi/erj and Princeps Coquorum.
zdly, Major-Domo was alfo applied to the Steward of the
Houlhold. 3dly, The Title of Major-Domo was alfo given
to the Chief Minifler, to whom the Prince deputed rhe
Adminijiration of all his Affairs, foreign and domeflicki
relating to War as well as Peace. Inflances of Major-
Domo's in the two firil Senfes are frequent, both in the
Engli/h, French, and Norman Affairs.
MAKE, in Law, fignifies to perform and execute.
Thus, to make his Law, is to perform that Law to which
he had formerly bound himfelf; i. e. to clear himfelf of
an Aaion commenc'd againif him, by his own Oath and
the Oath of his Neighbours. To make Services, or CuJiom;
is nothing elfe but to perform.
MALACIA, a Difeafe confifling in a depraved Appe-
tite, wherein the Patient covets and longs for fome parti-
cular kind of Food with extraordinary Earneflnefs, and
eats it to Excefs. As when a Woman with Child is vehe-
mently defirous of Herrings, or any other ufual Dilh.
Many Authors confound this Affection with another call'd
Pica, confifting in a Depravation of Appetite, which leads
the Patient to covet things unnatural and abfurd, as Lime,
Coals, Wic. The Malacia feems to arife from an ill Difpo-
fition of the Menfiruum in the Stomach X or from fome
Defea in the Imagination, which determines it to fome
one thing rather than another. The word feems derived
from the Greek paxeti, foft: too lax a Tone of the Sto-
mach being generally the Occafion of Indigeflion and un-
ufual Cravings.
MALAN DERS, a Difeafe in Horfes fo called from the
Italian Malandare, to go il. It confifis in certain Chops, or
Chinks, appearing on the infide of the Fore-Legs, juil
againfi the bending of the Knee, which void a red, Sharp,
and biting Water.
MALE, the Sex which has the Parts of Generation
without-wards, and which has ordinarily the Prehemi.
nence over the other.
MALEBRANCHISM, the Doarine or Sentiments of
Father Malebrancb, a Prieft of the Oratory of France. Ma-
lebrancbhim is in a great meafure the fame with Cartefianifm.
It muff be own'd however, that tho F. Malebrancb thought
the fame with Des Cartes, yet he does not feem to have
follow'd him, but to have met with him. Malebrancbih
is contain'd in the Recherche de la Verite and to give a ge-
neral Notion of it, we need only repeat what M. Fontenelle
fiys of that Work. The Enquiry after "Truth, fays he, is
full of God. God is the only Agent, and that too, in the
flridefi fenfe. All Power of Ading, all Aaions belong
immediately to him. Second Caufes are no Caufes. They
areonly Occafions that determine the Aaion of God; Oc-
cafional Caufes. See Caufe F'. Malebranch, however, does
not here lay down his Syflem entire with regard to Reli-
gion, or rather the Manner in which he would reconcile
Religion to his Syfcem of Philofophy. That he referv'd
for his ChriJtian ConvefaJtions, printed in i677. where he
proves the Exiflence of a God, tde Corruption of Human
Nature by Original Sin, the Neceflitv of a Mediator and
of Grace. Malebranckjim, notwithilanding, appears to
many Perfons not onty ill grounded, but even dangerous
and defiruaive to Religion: and has accordingly been vi-
goroufly oppofed  by many zealous Fiench Authors. The
firfi was M. Foucher. After him came M. Arnaud; and in
i715, (the Year F. Malebrancb died*) F. du Tertre, a Jefutf
publifh'd ar, ample Confutation (as he imagines) of his
whole Syftrm. Ti'hat part which relates to our feeing all
things in Plod, has been anfwer'd by Mr. Locke.
.MALEDICTION, in Law, a Curfe ufually annex'd to
Donat'ions of Lands, 8c. to Churches and Religious -ou-
fes ; imprecating the moft direful Punifhments to thofe
who Ihould infringe them.
MALIGNANT, in Medicine, a Difeafe greatly aggra-
vated: The word is generally applied to fuch Fevers as
are Epidemical, or Infeaious, and are attended with
Spots and Eruptions of various kinds. See Fever.
MALLEABLE, fomething hard and duaile, and that
may be beaten, forg'd and extended under the Hammer
without breaking. All Metals are Malleable, excepting
Quickfilver; but Gold in the greatef* degree of all.
The Chymifls have long fought the Fixation of Mercary,
to render it malleable. 'Tis  X popula' Error, that ever
I      i  i  i  i  i  I     th  e
MA j


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