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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

M - mapparius,   pp. 478-497 PDF (19.4 MB)


Page 488


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MAH                       (41
MAGNIFYING-GLASS, in Optics, a little Sphere,
convex Lens, Wtc. which, in tranfmitting, the Rays of
Light, infletas them fo, as that the parallel ones become
converging, and thofe which were diverging become pa-
rallel 5 by means whereof, Obje&s view'd thro 'em ap-
pear larger than when view'd by the naked Eye. See
Lens, Microfcope, &c.
MAGNITUDE, any thing that hasParts external toParts,
conneaed together by fome common Term; i. e. any
thing locally extended or continued; or that has feveral
Dimenfions. The Origin of all Magnitude is aPointy which
tho void of Parts itfelf, yet its Flux forms a Line, the
Flux of that a Surface, and of that a Body.
M. Preflet gives the Name Literal Magnitude to a Mag-
zitude exprefs'd by Letters; and a Numerical Magnitude he
calls fuch a one as is exprefs'd by Numbers; a Broken
lgni tude is a Fraftion; 5a Complex Magnitude is that for m'd
by Multiplication ; an Incommenfurable Magnitude is a Mag-
iuitude that has no proportion to Unity.
Among the Writers of Optics, the Apparent Magnitude
of a Body is that meafured by the Optic or Vifual Angle,
intercepted between Rays drawn from its Extremes into
the Centre of the Pupil of each. And 'tis one of their
fundamental Maxims, whatever things are feen under the
fame or equal Angles, appear equal, and on the contrary.
The Apparent Magnitudes of an Object at different Di-
flances, are in a Ratio lefs than that of their Diflances
reciprocally.
MAGOPHONIA, the Name of a Feafi among the
antient Perfians. The Magus Smerdis having ufurped the
Throne of the Perfians upon the death of Cambyfes, 511
Years before J. C. feven of the principal Lords of the
Court confpired to drive him out of it. Their Defign was
executed with good fuccefs; Smerdis and his Brother,
another Magus, call'd Pitizitbez, they kill'd. Upon
which, the People alfo rofe, and put all the Magi to the
fword; infomuch that there would not one have efcaped,
had not the Night come upon 'em. Darius, Son of Hy-
ftafpes, was then elecled King. In memory of this Maf-
facre of the Magi, a Feaff was inflituted, fays Herodotus,
call'd Magopbonia i from Mct@-, Magus, and   , Mur-
ther.
MAHIM, or ?Maybim, in Law, a Corporal Hurt, where-
by a Man lofeth the Ufe of any Member, that is or may
be of any defence to him in Battle; as the Eye, Hand,
Foot, Scalp of the Head, Fore-tooth, or, as fome fay,
any Finger or Toe. Glanv. Brai, We. If any one Ihall of
Malice forethought cut out or difable any Limb or Mem-
ber of any, with Intention in fo doing to maim or disfigure
him, it is Felony without Benefit of the Clergy; and
when the Cafe is difficult to judge, whether it be a Mabim
or not, the Judges commonly behold the Party wounded,
and fometimes take the Opinion of Chirurgeons. The
word comes from the French Mebaigner, to mutilate, The
Canonifis call it Membri Mutilationem ; and all agree, it
confifls in the Lofs of a Member, or the Ufe thereof.
MAHOMETANISM, the Syflem of Religion broach'd
by Mabomet, and fill adhered to by his Followers. Ma-
bometanifm is embraced by the Turks, Pe7fians, and fe-
veral Nations among the Africans, and many among the
Eaft-Indians. The firfi and chief Article of the Mahome-
tan Creed, is, that there is no other God but God; which they
have from the Alcoran, where thefe Words are repeated
inceXantly: There is no other God but him. Sour God is the
only God. I am God, and there is no other God but me. This
grand Axiom of their Theology feems to have been taken
from the Sfews, who were continually rehearling thofe
Words of Deuteronomy, Hear, Ifrael, the Lord our God is One.
For this reafon, the Mabometans account all fuch as own
any thing of Number in the Divinity, to be Idolaters:
And accordingly, one of the firit Leffons they teach their
Children, is, That God is neither Male nor Female, and
confequently can have no Children.
The fecond Fundamental Article of Mabometanifm con-
fifs in this, That Mahomet was fent from God. By which
they exclude all other Religions; under pretence that
their Prophet was the lafi and greatefi of all the Prophets
that God would ever fend; and that as the 3e+z,~/hkeli-
gion ceafed with the Coming of the Meffiab, fo likewife
the Chriflian Religion was to be abrogated with the
Coming of Mabomet. Not but that they own Mofes and
fefas CbriJft to have been great Prophets; but Mabomet they
hold to be The Propbet, by way of Excellence i and the
Paraclete or Comforter fpoken of in Scripture.
Thefe are the two Fundamentals of Mabometanifm; fo
that when any is to make profeflion of that Faith, they
content themselves with his fpeaking thefe words, There
is no other God but God, and Iviahomet is his Envoy or Pro-
bhet.
To thefe Articles the Mabometans have added that of
lathing or Purification, in imitation of the 3ews. And
3 )                  MAI
fuch an Opinior hate they of thefe Purifications, that 'ti,
purelyon that account they feem to have retain'd the
Praaice of Circuincifion.  For they pretend, with the
l-ews, that if the leaft part of the Body remain unwafh'd,
the Bathing is of no etfed. Hence they find theinfelves
under a neceffity of being circumcis'd; that the Part co-
ver'd by the Prepuce may alfo have its mhare of the Lo-
tion.
Prayer is alfo one of the Things to which the Mabo-
metans are obliged; and they perform it five times a day,
to diftinguifh themfelves from  the Seews, who only do it
thrice. Some of their Returns of Prayer they hold to be
neceffary and of Divine Obligation; others they efleem
convenient and prudential. Rhat at Nine a-clock in the
Morning they don't efleem neceffTry; but thofe at Noon
and in the Afternoon are held to be jure Divine. They
are obliged to obferve an infinity of things to be heard:
If they fpeak or fmile in Praying, their Prayers are vain:
and 'tis the fame thing if they weep, unlefs it be with
the Thought of Paradife or Hell. In many of their
Prayers they ufe Beads. They believe with the Cbrjiians
and lews a Refurrection of the Dead. They hold, that
e'er that time an Anti-Mabomet will come; and that J. C.
will defcend from Heaven to kill him, and eflablifh Ma-
bomeranxfm. To which they add a great many more Chi-
nmaras, relating to Gog and Magog i and the Beafi that is to
come out of Mocca. The Mountains are to fly in the Air
like Birds, and at lafl the Heavens will melt and run
upon the Earth. They add however, that fome time
after, God will renew and re-eflablilh the Earth i that
then the Dead will be rais'd, Wc. See Alcoram.
MAIDEN, an edg'd Initrument ufed in fome Coun-
tries, particularly in Scouland, for the beheading of Cri-
minals. The Maiden is a broad Piece of Iron, a foot
fquare, fharp on the lower part, and loaded above with
Lead, fo as fcarce to be lifted. At the time of Execu- -
tion, it is pull'd up to the top of a narrow wooden Frame
ten foot high, with a Groove on each fide for the Maiden
to flide in. The Prifoner's Neck being faifen'd to a Bar
underneath, on a Sign given, the Maiden is let loofe, and
the Head in an inflant Separated from the Body.
MAJESTY, a Title given to Kings, and which fre-
quently ferves as a Name to diffinguilh them by. The
Emperor is call'd, His Cefarian or Imperial MajeJfy ; the
King of Spain, His Catholic Majejfy; the King of france,
His moft Chriflian Majefly i the King of Great Britain, His
Britannic Majejty, &c. Some have alfo extended this Ti-
tle to the Popes. Pafquier has obferved, that our Fore-
fathers ufed this Quality exceeding Sparingly; and that
the frequent Ufe of the Word which now obtains, had
not its beginning before the Reign of their Henry 11. He
inflances feveral Letters of S. Gregory, who writing to
King Theodebert and Theodoric, only compliments them with
Excellence. Till the Time of Cbarles V. the King of Spain
had no Title but that of Highnefs: And before our King
Henry VIII. the Kings of England were only addrefs'd un-
der the Titles of Grace and Higbvefs. At the Peace of
Munfter, there was a great Conteil between the Minifiers
of the Emperor and thofe of France: The firil would not
allow the Title of Serenity to the King of France, and the
latter would not give that of Mlajejiy to the Emperor.
At laif 'twas agreed, that whenever the French King
mhould write with his own Hand to the Emperor, he
Thould give him the Title of Imperial Majejfy; and reci-
procally when the Emperor hould write to the King, he
mhould give him that of Royal Majefly.
Under the Roman Republic, the Title of Majejty be-
longed to the whole Body of the People and to the Prin-
cipalMagifirares; fo that to diminifh or wound the Ma-
jelly of the Commonwealth, was to be wanting in Refped
to the State, or its Miniflers. But the Power paflling into
the hands of a fingle Perfon, the Appellation of Majefly
was transfer'd to the Emperor and the Imperial Family.
Pliny complements Trajan on his being contented with
the Title of Greatnef;; and fpeaks very invidioufly on thofe
who affeiled that of Majelty. And yet Majefty feems to
be the modeflefl and juffeff Title that can be attributed
to Sovereigns, fince it fignifies no more, at bottom, than
the Royalty or Sovereign Power.
The Word feems compofcd of the two Latin words,
Major, greater, and Sratus, State.
MAIL, a Coat of Mail, fo call'd from the French Maille,
a fquare Figure, or the fquare Hole of a Net. Maie
with a double 11 fignifies a round Ring of Iron, whence
the Play of Pall-Mall, from Palla, a Ball, and Maille, the
round Ring thro which it is to pafs.
MAILED     implies fornething fpeckled, or full of
Specks ; as the Feathers of Hawks, Partridges, &!c. or
as the Furs of fome wild Beafis are.
MAIN MORTE, a Term in fome antient Cufloms
Fill holding in Burgundy and other Countrics, fignifying a
Right


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