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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

M - mapparius,   pp. 478-497 PDF (19.4 MB)

Page 484

( 484 )
dte 49 Orbl sTumbers of the Natural Progreflion. But as
we have already obferved, that a Primitive Square of 7
Numbers repeated may have above 2oi6o feveral Con-
lfrufions, the Number 4o642 5 6co muil come vafily 1hort
of exprefling all the poflible Confiruffions of a perfect
J.lagic Square of the 49 firft Numbers.
As to the ETen Squtares, be confiruafs them like the
Uneven ones, by two Primitive Squares; but the Con-
firuaion of Primitives is different in the general, and may
be fo a great number of ways: and thofe general Dife-
rences admit of a great number of particular Variations,
Which give as many different Confirucfions for the fame
even Square. It fcarce feems poflible to determine ex-
taly, either how many general Differences there may be
between the Conflrulion of the primitive Squares of an
even Square and an uneven one; nor how many particular
Variations each general Difference may admit of; and of
confequence we are fill far from being able to determine
the Number of different Conffruffions of all thofe that
may be made by the Primitive Squares.
MAGISTER, Mafier, a Title frequently found in old
Writings. It noted; the Perfon who bore it had attained
fome Degree of Eminency in Scientia aliqua prxefertim Lite-
raria; and in old Times thofe we now call Dogors, were
called Magijfri.
MAGISTERY, a Term in Chymifiry fignifying a Pre-
ci itate of fome DilTolution; made by a Salt, or fome
otterBody,which breaks the Force ofthefDiffolvent. Thus
we fay, Magfloery of Bimruth, which is a very fine Powder
made by diffolving the Bifmuth in Spirit of Nitre, and pour-
ing on it Salt Water, which precipitates the Magijfery to the
bottom. See Bijmutb. Magijiery of Lead is a fine Powder,
made by diffolving Saccbarum Saturni in diffill'd Vinegar,
and then precipitating it with Oil of Tartar per Deliquium.
The word MagiJiery is alfo ufed in fpeaking of Refins, Re-
finous Extradts of Scammony, Jalap, Turpeth, fic. which
are made by difolving the Matter in Spirit of Wine, and
precipitating it with Water. Mr. Beyle takes the proper
Notion of a Magi/ery to confifd in a Preparation of a Body,
whereby it is wholly, or at leaf{ in great meafure, by
means of fome extraneous Additament converted into a
Body of a different kind; as when Iron or Copper is
turned into Chryflals of Mars and Venus.
MAGMA, among Chymifis, Wc. the Dregs or Refi-
duum afterInfufion or Diffillation.
MAGNA AR'I ERIA, the fame with the Aorta, which
MAGNA CHARTA, the Great Charter, granted the
ninth Year of Henry the Third, and confirmed by Edward
the Firfi. The Reafon why it is (o term'd, is either be-
caufe of the Excellency of the Laws and Liberties there-
in contained, or elfe becaufe there was another Charter,
call'd Cbarta de Forefta, efiablifh'd with it, which was the
lefs of the two; or becaufe it contained more than any
other Chatters ; or more than that of K. Henry the Firft ;
or in regard of the Wars and Troubles in the obtaining of
it; or of the great and remarkable Solemnity in the de-
nouncing Excommunications againil the Infringers of it.
HolinAked indeed tells us, that King fobn, to appeafe the
Barons, yielded to Laws or Articles of Government much
like to this great Charter; but we have now no antienter
Law written than this; which was thought to be fo bene-
ficial to the Subjed, and a Law of fo great Equity, in
comparifon of thofe which were formerly in ufe, that
King Henry, for the granting it, had the fifteenth Penny
of all the moveable Goods, both of Temporality and
Spirituality. Sir Edw. Coke fays, it has been above thirty
6i1mes confirmed. It is recorded, that when Henry III.
confirm'd it, he fwore on the word and Faith of a King,
a Chriflian, and a Knight, to obferve it. See Charta Magna.
MAGNES ARSENICAL, in Chymifiry, a Mixture
of equal Parts of Arfenic, Sulphur, and Antimony melted
together over the Fire, and condenfed in manner of a
Stone. It is a very gentle Cauffic, and was firfi invented
by Angelus Sala. It has its Name Matnet, becaufe being
wore during Malignant Difeafes, it is fuppofed to preferve
the Wearer from Infedion by a Magnetical Power.
MAGNET, or Loadftone, a Mineral Stone, or rather
a Metal, or an imperfect Iron ; in Weight and Colour
resembling Iron Ore, tho fomewhat harder and more
heavy. It is ufually found in Iron Mines, and Sometimes
in very large pieces, half Magnet, half Iron. Its Colour
is different, according to the different Countries it is
brought from. Norman obferves, that the befl are thofe
brought from China and Bengal, which are of an Iron or
Sanguine Colour; shofe of Arabia are reddifh, thofe of
Macedonia blackilh; and thofe of Hungary, Germany, Eng-
land, &c. the Colour of unwrought Iron. Neither its Fi-
gure nor Bulk are determined, but it is found of all
Forms and Sizes.
The Antients reckon'd five kinds of Magnets, different
ia Colour and Virtue: the Etbiopic, Magnefian, Bitic,
Alexandrian, and Natolian. They alfo took it to be Male
and Female: but the chief Ufe they made of it was in
Medicine ; efpecially for the Cure of Butns, and De-
fluxions on the Eyes: the Moderns, more happy, take it
to conduct 'em in their Voyages.
The moft diftinguilhing Properties of this wonderful
Body, are, That it attracis Iron, and that it points to the
Poles of the World; and in other Circumtfances alfo dips
or inclines to a Point beneath the Horizon, directly under
the Pole; and that it communicates thefe Properties by
Touch, to Iron. On which Foundation are built the
Mariners Needles; both Horizontal, and Inclinatory, or
Dipping Needles. See Needle.
The Arradive Power of the Magnet was known to the
Antients, and is mention'd even by Plato and Earipides;
who call it the Herculean &tone; becaufe it commands Iron,
which fubdues every thing elfe; But the Knowledge of
its Directive Power, whereby it difpofes its Poles along
the Meridian of every Place, and occafions Needles,
Pieces of Iron, L4c. touch'd with it, to point nearly North
and South, is of a much later date; tho the exad Time
of its Difcovery, and the Difcoverer himfelf, are yet in
the dark. The firfi tidings we hear of it, is in 126o, when
Paulus Venetus is faid by Come to have firil introduced the
Mariners Compfas; tho not as an Invention of 14s own,
but as derived from the Cinefe, who are ftid to have ba4
the Ufe of it long before: but others, and with good tea-
fon, think that the Chinefe rather borrow'd it from the
Europeans. gobn de Goia, a Neapolitan, who lived in the
T 3th Century, is the Perfon ufually fuppofed to have the
bell Title to the Difcovery: And yet Sir G. Wheeler men-
tions, that he had feen a Book of Ailronomy much older,
which fuppofed the Ufe of the Needle; tho not as applied
to the Ufes of Navigation, but of Afironomy. And in
Guyot de Provins, an old French Poet, who wrote about the
Year i s8o, there is exprefs mention made of the Load-
flone and the Compafs; and their Ufe in Navigation ob-
liquely hinted at. See Compafs.
The Variation of the Needle, or its Declination from the
Pole, was firft difcovered by Seb. Cabot, a Venetian, in
1500; and the Variation of that Variation by Mr. Ge-i
brand, an EngliJman, about jthe Year t62 5. Laftly, The
Dip or Inclination of the Needle, when at liberty to
play vertically, to a Point beneath the Horizon, was firft
difcover'd by another of our Countrymen, Mr.R.Norma.,
about the Year 1 576. See Needle.
Some of the Ykenomena of the Magnet are as follow.
(i.) In every Magnet there are two Poles, the one whereof
points Northward, the other Southward; and if the Magnet
be divided into ever fo many pieces, the two Poles
will be found in each piece. (2.) Thefe Poles in diffe-
rent parts of the Globe, are differently inclined to-
wards a Point under the Horizon. (3.) Thefe Poles, tho
contraryto one another, do help mutually towards the
Magnet's Attracion and Sufpenfion of Iron. (4.) If two
Magnets are Spherical, one will turn or conform itfelf to
the other, fo as either of them would do to the Earth i
and after they have fo conformed or turned them-
felves, they endeavour to approach or join each other;
but if placed in a contrary Pofition, they avoid each
other. (5.) If a Magnet be cut thro the Axis, the Parts
or Segments of the Stone, which before were joined,
will now avoid and fly each other. (6.) If the Magnet be
cut by a Seaion perpendicular to its Axis, the two Points
which before were conjoined, will become contrary Poles;
one in one, the other in the other Segment. (7.) Iron
receives Virtue from  the Magnet by application to it, or
barely from an approach near it, tho it doth not touch
it; and the Iron receives this Virtue varioufly, according
to the Parts of the Stone it is made to touch, or made
approach to. (8.) If an oblong Piece of Iron be any how
applied to the Stone, it receives Virtue from it, only as to
its length. (9.) The Magnet lofeth none of its own Vir-
tue by communicating any to the Iron; and this Virtue it
can communicate to the Iron very fpeedily; tho the lon-
ger the Iron touches or joins the Stone, the longer will its
communicated Virtue hold; and a better Mdagnet will com-
municate more of it, and fooner, than one not fo good.
(io.) Steel receives Virtue from the Magnet, better than
Iron. (ir.) A Needle touch'd by a Magnet will turn its
Ends the fame way towards the Poles of the World, as
the Magnet will do it. (12.) Neither Loadflone nor
Needles touch'd by it do conform their Poles exaaly to
thofe of the World, but have ufually fome Variation
from them : And this Variation is different in divers pla-
ces, and at divers times in the fame place. (:3.) A
Loadfione will take up much more Iron when arm'd
or capp'd than it can alone: And tho an Iron Ring or
Key be fufpended by the Loadflone, yet the Magnetical
Par~ticles do not hinder that Ring or Key from turning
round any way, either to the right or left. (14.) The
Force of a Logdilone may be varioufly increas'd or

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