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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

M - mapparius,   pp. 478-497 PDF (19.4 MB)

Page 481

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if the Gods would be heard by theni Alone. According
to Lucian, Suidas, &c. the Theology or Worihip of the
Gods, about which the Magi were employ'd, was little
more than the Diabolical Art of Divination.  Hence
pAyra, 11rialy taken, fignifies Divination. lorpbyry de-
fines the Magi well, Circa Di'ina Sapientes LeS in iifdem
minifirantes; adding, that the word Maguy implied as
much in the Perfian Tongue. Thefe People, fays he,
are held in fuch Veneration among the Perfians, that
Darius, the Son of Hyftafpes, among other things, had
this engraven on his Monument, that he was the Mailer
of the Magi. Their Defcendants, the modern Magi, are
divided into three Claflies; whereof the firfi and Noft
learned neither eat nor kill Animals, but adhere to
the old Inflitution of abilaining from living Creatures.
The Magi of the fecond Clafs refrain only from tame
Animals; nor do the laif kill all indifferently; it
being the firm and diflinguifhing Dogma of them all,
7tcd PAIJ.4u&On' sy tbat there is a Tranfmigration of
Souls. To intimate the Similitude between Animals and
Men 5 they ufe to call the latter by the Name of the
former; thus their Fellow-Priefis they call'd Lions, the
Priefleffes Lionqyes, the Servants Crows, &c.  Pbilo
gudreus defcribes the Magi to be diligent Inquirers into Na-
ture, out of the Love they bear to Truth ; and who fet-
ting themselves apart for thefe things, contemplate the
Divine Virtues the more clearly, and initiate others in the
fame Mylleries.
The Origin of Magic and the Magi is afcribed to Zoro-
afler. Salmafius derives the very Name from Zoroafler,
who, he fays, was furnam'd Mog, whence Magus. Others,
inilead of making him the Author of the Perfian Philo-
fophy, make kim only the Reflorer and Improver there-
of; alledging that many of the Perfia Rites, in Ufa
among the Magi, were borrowed from the Zabii of the
Chaldeans, who agreed in many things- with the Magi of
the rerfians ; whence fome make the Name Magus com-
mon both to the Chaldeans and Perfians. Thus Plutarch
mentions, that Zoroafter inflituted Magi among the Chal-
deans; in imitation whereof the Perfeans had theirs too.
The Learned are in great perplexity about the Ori-
gn of the Word. Plato, Xenopkon, Herodotus, Strabo,
ic. fetch its Origin from the Perfian Language; in which
it fignified a Prieft, or Perfon to officiate in Holy Things,
as Druidamong the Gauls, Gymnofopbhif among the In-
ans, and Le'vite among the Hebrews.  Others derive it
from the Greek ubas, great, which being borrowed of the
Greeks by the Perfians, was returned in the form of pra;s;
but Voffus, with more probability, brings it from the
Hebrew n1, haga, to meditate; whence is formed ='X71O,
Maagbim, in Latin iieditabundi, q. d. People addiged to Medi-
MAGIC, a Science that teaches to perform wonder-
ful and furprizing Effeas.  The Word Magic originally
carried with it a very innocent, nay laudable, Meaning ;
being ufed purely to fignify the Study of Wifdom ; but
in regard the antient Magi, or Magicians, engaged them
felves in Allrology, Divination, Sorcery, Eec. the Term
lagic in time became odious, and was only ufed to fig-
nify a Science Scandalous and unlawful. If any wonder
how fo vain and deceitful a Science fhould gain fo much
Credit and Authority over Mens Minds, Pliny gives the
Reafon of it ; 'Tis, Jays be, becaufe it has poffeffed it-
felf of three Sciences of the mofi Efleem among Men;
taking from each, all that is great and marvellous
in it. Nobody doubts but it had its firfi Origin in
Medicine, and that it infinuated itfelf into the Minds of
the People under pretence of giving extraordinary Re-
medies. To thefe fine Promifes it added every thing in
Religion that is pompous and fplendid, and that ap-
pears calculated to blind and captivate Mankind. Lafl-
Fy, it mingled judiciary Aflrology with the rell ; per-
fuading People, curious of Futurity, that it faw every
thing to come in the Heavens.
Agrippa divides Magic into three kinds; Natural Magic,
Celeflial Magic, and Ceremonial or Superf a tious Magic. Ia-
sural Magic is no more than the Application of natural
ac.ive Caufes to paffive Caufes; by means whereof ma-
ny furprizing, but yet natural, Effeas are produced.
Celeftial Magic borders very nearly on Judiciary Afro-
logy. It attributes to Spirits a kind of Rule or Domi-
nion over the Planets; and to the Planets a Dominion over
Men; and on thefe Principles builds a ridiculous kind
of Syfiem.
Superftitious Magic confiffs in the Invocation of Devils;
its EffeEls are ufually evil and wicked; tho' very firange,
and furpaffing the Powers of Nature; produced, by
virtue of fome Compa&l, either tacit or exprefs, with
evil Spirits: but the truth is, thefe have not all the
Power that is ufually imagined, nor do they produce
half thofe Effeas ordinarily afcribed to them.
Baptifta Perta has writtn of natural Magic, or of Secrets
- M  A  G ...
M_ A if
for performing very extraordinary things by natural Cat-
res. The natural Mfagic of the Chaleans was nothing but the
Knowledge of the Powers of Simples and Minerjs.9 The
Magic, which they called Theurgia, confifled wholly, In
the Knowledge of the Ceremonies, to be obferved in the
Worfhip of the Gods, in order to be acceptable. By vir-
tue of thefe Ceremonies they believed they could con-
verfe with fpiritual Beings, and cure Difeafes. Naude has
published an Apology for all the Great Men fufpe&ed ?f
Magic. Agrippa fays, that the Words ufed by thofe im
compaa with the Devil, to invoke him, and to fucceed
in what they undertake, are Dies mies jefquet bendoefet doa
foima enitemaus.  There are an hundred other fuperfli-
tious Formula's of Words compofed at pleafure, or ga-
thered from Several different Languages, or ptch'd
frbm the Hebrew, or formed in imitation of it.
MAGIC LANTHORN, an Optic Machine, by means
whereof little painted Images are represented on an op-
pofite Wall of a dark Room, magnified to any Bignefs
at pleafure.
Conftrulion of tbe Magic Lanthorn. A B C D (Tab. OP-
ticks, Fg. to.) is a common Tin Lanthorn, to which is ad-
ded a Tube to draw out, F G. In H is fixed a metallic
concave Speculum of a Foot diameter at moil, or four
Inches at leafk; or, in lieu thereof, near the Extremity
of the Tube is placed a convex Lens, confifing of a Seg-
ment of a fmall Sphere, its Diameter not exceeding a
few Inches. In the Focus of the concave Speculum, or
Lens, is placed a Lamp L ; within the Tube, where it is
foldered to the Side of the Lanthorn, is placed a fmall
Lens, convex on both Sides, being a Portion of a fmall
Sphere, having its Focus about the Diflance of three In-
ches. The extreme Part of the Tube F M is fquare, and
has in Aperture quite thro'i fo as to receive an oblong
Frame N 0O pa red thro' it ; in this Frame are round
Holes an Inch or two in Diameter. According to the
Bignefs of thofe Holes are drawn Circles on a plain
thin Glafs i and in thefe Circles are painted any Figures
or Images at pleafure, with transparent Water Colours.
Thefe Images fitted into the Frame, and placed inver-
tedly, at a little diflance from the Focus of the Lens 1;
will be projecled on an oppofite white Wall of a dark
Room, prodigioufly magnified in all their Colours, and
an ere& Situation.
Theory of the Magic Lanthorn. The Lamp being placed
in the Focus of the concave Speculum, or any Convex
;lafs, the Rays will be propagated parallel to each other,
and the Image will be firongly illumined, and will there-
fore emit a great Number of Rays into the Lens 1. But
being fuppofed to be placed near the Lens 1, the inverted
Image of the Pialure inverted mutt be form'd on the oppo-
fite Wall, exceedingly magnified after its Refraalion throb
the Lens; and it will be fill the more magnified as the
Lens is a Segment of a lefs Sphere, and as the Piclure
is placed nearer the Focus of the Lens; in a dark Place
therefore the Pi6lure will be reprefented prodigiously
large and extremely vivid. See Lens.
Another Magic Lanthborn. Every thing being managed
as in the former, into the fliding Tube F G, infert ano-
ther Convex Lens K, the Segment of a Sphere fomewhat
larger than i; now if the Piaure be brought nearer I
than to the Diflance of the Focus, the diverging Rays
will be propagated as if they proceeded from PI: where-
fore if the Lens K be fo placed, as that P is very near
its Focus, the Image will be exhibited on the Wall ex-
ceedingly magnified.
Schol. r. To heighten the Light, Specula are preferred
to Lens's ; the Focus of a Speculum being nearer than
that of the Lens.
2. De Chales orders the Diameter of the Lens I to
be two, four, or five Digits, and in a fubduple Propor-
tion to the other K; i. e. if I be five Digits, K mull be
ot; and the Diameter of the Speculum, according to
the fame, is to be two Digits. Zabhius chutes to have the
Diameter of I f; of a Foot, and that of K one Foot and
A, Wc.
3. Little Animals being included in the Magic Lantborfl,
in the manner obferved in fpeaking of the Microfcope i
or any little tranfparent Objeds faflened to a Slice of
Talk or Glafs, and fubilituted inflead of Images; the
Magic Lanthorn will become a Microfcope.
MAGIC SQUARES, the feveral Numbers that corn-
pofe any fquare  Number; (for Inflance, I, Z, 3,4, 5,
fc. to 25 inclufive, which compofe the fquare Number
25) being difpofed after each other in a fquare Figure of
2 Cells, each in its Cell: if then you change the Order
of thefe Numbers, and difpofe them in the Cells, in
fuch manner, as that the five Numbers, which fill any
Horizontal Rank of Cells, being added together, fhall
make the fame Sum, with the five Numbers, in anryo-
ther Rank of Cells, whether horizontal or vertical; and
even the fame Nupnber with the five in each of the two
Gggg4g              Diagona

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