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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

M - mapparius,   pp. 478-497 PDF (19.4 MB)

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(4.) Since the Revolution of the Macule round the
Sun is very regular; and fince their Difiance from the Sun
is very fmall, 'tis not properly the Mackhe that move round
the Sun: But 'tis himfelf, together with his Atmofphere,
wherein the Macule fwim, that in the fpace of a7 Days
moves round its own Axis ; and hence it is that the Ma-
cdre, being viewed obliquely near the Limb, appear nar-
row and oblong.
And, Lafily, fince the Sun appears with a circular
Disk in every Situation; his Figure, as to Senfe, mudl be
Spherical. Some Authors likewife take notice of Faculx,
or bright Spots, in the Disk of the Sun, much more lu-
cid than the reff, much larger than the Maculs, and ve-
ry different from them both, as to Figure, Duration, W'c.
Hevelius mentions his feeing a Facula in 1634, which took
up a third part of the Sun's Diameter; and adds, that
the Macual frequently change into Faculae; but the Facula-
feldom or never into Macula.  But Huygens, and other
great Afironomers, rejea the Notion of the Faclade; hav-
ilg never feen any thing like them  (tho furnifh'd with
the beff Telefcopes) excepting little bright Specks in the
dim Clouds which frequently incompafs the Macuda ; and
which may be owing to the Refrtaion of the Sun's Rays
in the rarer Parts of his Atmofphere. And as to that lit-
tle Inequality obferved in the Circumference of the Sun's
Disk, which is ufually afcribed to the Wavings and
Erudations of the Flames ; it feems better accounted for
from the tremulous Agitation of the Vapours in our
own Atmofphere.
MADDER, the Root of a Plant, much ufed by
Dyers, to make the moil folid and rich red Colour; it
has its Ufes too in Medicine, being found of Service in
Obflruaions of the Vifcera and Cacheaic Conflitutions ;
and is generally made up in form's of Decocaions, Diet-
Drinks, and medicated Ales.
MADNESS, or MANIA, in Medicine, a kind of De-
lirium without a Fever, attended with Rage, and a total
Deprivation of Reafon. Madnefs confifling much in a
Delirium, to explain the Nature of the former, -Dr.
ui*ncy premifes that of the latter thus : As often as the
Species of Things, wherewith we have been acquainted,
are hurried together, we may be faid to dream, and
thence in Sleep they are added with other things, and
varioufly compounded, from the manifold Repercuflions
of the Animal Spirits, which arife from the Caufe pro-
ducing Sleep, and prefling the Nerves, fo as to revert
the Fludtuatiorns of their Juice. A Delirium is there-
fore the Dreams of waking Perfons, wherein Ideas are
excited without Order or Coherence, and the Animal
Spirits are drove into irregular Fluauations. If there-
fore the Caufe inducing a Delirium be of that nature,
that it can excite Ideas or Motions of a confiderable Im-
petus, without any manner of Certainty or Order, fuch
a Delirium will be attended with Botdnefs or Rage, and
violent Motions of the Body 3 that is, a Madnefs will be
produced. Now it is plain, that all the known Caufes
of this Diflemper give a greater Difpofition to the Blood
for Motion, and render it fluxile, but not confident, and
uniformly thick enough ; and therefore that they dif-
pofe Perfions likewife to continued Fevers, fince they oc-
cafion the Blood to be thrown out of the Heart with an
increafed Force, unlefs fome other Caufe intervenes,
whereby the Efficacies of thefe are interrupted in dif-
rofing the Blood into Febrile Motions ; and the Blood is
to difpofed, as often as it can be rarefied into its minutef*
Parts i that is, fo uniformly rarefied, that it can eafily,
with any Force by the Motion received from the Heart,
go into Parts divifible at the Occurfions of thofe Ori.
fices, into which it ought to be diftributed: for then the
Cohefion of the Parts, which can be but very fmall,
will not be any Obfiru6lion to the Increafe and Propaga-
tion of the Blood's Velocity. But if it happens that the
efficient Caufe, or the Heart, throws the Blood with a
greater Force, or that the Blood can the more eafily be
propelled in any given Time, it will occafion, at the
fame time, that fome Parts of the Blood be more near-
ly united, fo as to form Alolecule, confiding of cohering
Particles; which Molecule will cohere to one another,
and not fo eafily obey the Direction of the Heart's pro-
elling Force. The Blood hereupon cannot be uniform-
iy rarefied, nor enter fo eafily into the fmall Orifices of
the Veffels, and fo foon travel thro' them, and there-
fore there will no Fever arife ; but a Delirium without
a Fever, wherein the Heat of the Blood will be greater,
and the Preffure in the Brain uncertain  whence uncer-
tain Recurfions of the Spirits, inordinate Undulations,
confufed Vibrations of the Nerves, and a remarkable
Energy of Imagination ; whence will proceed Audacity
and Paffion beyond meafure. Some Authors fay, that the
Brain of a Cat eaten, produces MadneJs.- 'Tis a Difeafe
very hard to cure, and is generally found to baffle the
P hyfician.
MADRIER, in the 'Military Art, a thick Plank armed
with Iron Plates, having a Concavity fuflicient to receive
the Mouth of the Petardwhen charged, with which it is
applied againff a Gate, or other Body defigned to be
broke down. Madrier is alfo the Name of a flat Beant
fixed at the bottom of a Moat to fupport a Wall. Be-
fides which, there are alfo .Iadriers lined with Tin, end
covered with Earth, ferving as a Defence againll artifi-
cial Fires.
MADRIGAL, a Term in the modern Italian, Spanif,
and Frencb Poetry, fignifying a little amorous Piece, con-
taining a certain Number of loofe unequal Verfes, not
tied either to the Scrupulous Rcgularity of a Sonnet, or
the Subtlety of an Epigram; but confilling of fome
tender, delicate, yet funple Thought, fuitably exprefed.
The Madrigal, according to Mr. le Bran, is an Epigram
without any thing very brisk and fprightly in its Fall or
Clofe: omething very tender and gallant is ufuallv the
Subjea of it ; and a certain beautiful, noble, yet chafle,
Si plicity, makes its Charaaer.
The Madrigal is ufually looked on as the lhorteil of all
the little kinds of Poems, and may confifd of fewer
Verfes than either the Sonnet or Rondelay. There is
no other Rule regarded in mingling the Rhimes and
Verfes of different kinds, but the Choke and Conve-
nience of the Author, This Poem, however, really allows
of lefs Licence than any other; whether we regard the
Rhyme, the Meafures, or the Purity of Expreffion.
Menage derives the Word from Mandra, which, in La-
tin and Greek, fignifies a Company of Cartel; imagining it
to have been originally a kind of Pafloral or Shepherd's
Song; whence the Italians formed their Madrigale, and
we Madrigal. Others rather chufe to derive the Word
from Madrugar, which, in the Spans/lG fignifies to rife in
the Morning: the Madrigals being formerly fung early in
the Morning, by thofe who had a mind to ferenade their
MAGAS, or MAGADE, the Name of a mufical In-
firument in Ufe among the Antients. There were two
kinds of Magades; the one a firing Inffrument, the In-
vention whereof is afcribed by fome to Saippbo, and by
others to the Lydians, and by others to Timotbeuss of Mi-
letum. The other Magade was a-kind of Flute, which at
the fame time yielded very high and very low Notes i
the former kind was much improved by Timotbeus of Mi-
letum, who is faid to have been impeached of a Crime;
for that by increafing the Number of Chords, he fpoiled
and difcredited the antient Mufic.
MAGAZINE, or Arfenal, is the Place in fortified
Towns where all forts of Stores are kept, and where
Carpenters, Wheelwrights, Smiths, Wc. are employed
in making all things needful to furnifh out the Train of
S. MAGDALEN. There are feveral kinds of Nuns,
or Religious, who bear this Name ; confifling generally
of penitent Courtezans : fometimes alfo call'd Mzgdala-
nettes 5 as thofe at Metz eflablilhed in 1452, thofe at Pa-
ris in 1492 i thofe at Naples, firft eflablifhed in  I 324,
and endowed by Queen Sancha, to ferve as a Retreat to
public Courtezans, who fhould quit the Trade, and be-
take themfelves to Repentance; and thofe of Rouen and
Bourdeaux, which had their Original among thofe of Pa-
ris. In each of thefe Monafleries there are three kinds
of Perfions and Congregations, viz, the firfi is of thofe
who are admitted to make Vows, and thefe bear the
Name of St. MagaAlen 5 the Congregation of St. Martbh
is the fecond, and is compofed of thofe whom 'tis not
judged proper to admit to Vows; the Congregation of
St. Lazarus is compofed of fuch as ale detained there by
force. The Religious of St. Magdalen at Rome were efla-
bliflhed by Pope Leo X. Clement VIII. fettled a Revenue
on them, and further appointed, that the Effeas of all
public Profilitutes, dying without Teflaments, Thould
fall to them; and that the Teflaments of the refi Mhould
be invalid; unlefs they bequeathed a Portion of their Ef-
feas, which was to be at leaft a fifth Part, to them.
MAGI, the Title the Eaflern Nations, both antient-
ly and at prefent, give to their Wife-men or Philofo-
phers. The antient Magi, according to Arpflotle and Laer-
tius, were the Authors and Confervators of the Perfiau
Philofophy ; and the Philofophy principally cultivated
among them was Theology and Politics: they being al-
ways efleern'd as the Interpreters of all Laws both
Divine and Human; on which account they were won-
derfully revered by the People. 'Hence Cicero ob-
ferves, that none were admitted to the Crown of Peria,
but fuch as were well inflruaed in the Difcipline of the
Magi ; who taught the 7-a a-xt'z ; and lheew'd Princes
how to govern. Plato, Apuleius, Laertius, and others, a-
gree, that the Philofophy of the Magi related principally
to the Worfhip of the Gods i they were the Pcerons who
were to offer Prayers, Supplications, and Sacrifct.r, as

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