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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Locustae - lysiarcha,   pp. 466-477 PDF (10.9 MB)

Page 476

('476 )
ofle. This Cufiom was efiabliflhed by Ser'hsTullius in the
Year of Rome i8o. Others rather derive the Word from
la/*raret to make a Review, becaufe once in five Years the
Cenfors reviewed the Army.
Loflrxm was alfo a Ceremony or Sacrifice ufed by the
Romans after numbering their People once in five Years.
LUTE, in Chymifiry, any frt of Cement or Plai-
fler; us'd either in the Conftrufion of Furnaces, or in fit-
ting to them Velels of Glafs or Earth; that are to refilt
a very violent Fire.  It is frequently made of Potter's
Earth, River Sand, HIorfes Dung, Powder of broken Pots,
Caput Mortnum of Vitriol, Drofs of Iron, beaten Glafs,
Flocks of Wool mix'd with falt Water or Bullock's
The Lute us'd by Lemery, was only two Parts of Sand
and one of Clay, tempered together in Water; which does
very well for joining the Nofes of Retorts and their Re-
ceivers in difl ling of volatile Spirits, Leic. In diflilling
by the Alembic, or Vefica, or Copper Body, with its Head
or Serpentine, a wet Bladder Serves very well to lute the
3uncaures of the Veflels: But for the Diftillation of cor-
rofive Spirits, as alfo to flop the Cracks of Glaffes, fec.
the following Compofition is recommended, viz.'Starch
boiled, or Fifh-Glue diffolved in Spirit of Wine, with
Flower of Sulphur, Maflic, and Lime flacked in Milk.
Lutum Sapientix is the Hermetical Seal, which is made by
melting the End of a Glafs Mattrafs by a Lamp, and
twifling it up with the Pliers. See Hermetical Sealing. The
Word comes from the Latin Luttum, Clay.
LUTE, a Mufical Inflrument with Strings. It had an-
tiently but five Rows of Strings j but in courfe of time
four, five, or fix more have been added. The Lute con-
fifts of four principal Parts, the Table, the Body or Bel-
ly, which has nine or ten Sides, the Neck, which has nine
or ten Stops or Divifions mark'd with Strings, and the
Head or Crofs, wherein are Screws for raifing or lowering
the Strings to the proper Tone. In the middle of the
Table is a Rofe or Fa age for the Sound. There is alfo
a Bridge that the Strings are faflened to, and a Piece
of Ivory between the Head and the Neck, to which the
other Extremity of the Strings are fitted. In playing, the
Strings are firuck with the right Hand, and with the
left the Stops are preffed. We call Temperament of
the Lute the proper Alteration that is to be made in the
Intervals, both with regard to Confonances and Diffonan-
ces, in order to render them more jufi on the Inflru-
ment. Some derive the word from the German Laute,
which fignifies the fame thing, or from lauten, fonare.
Scaliger and Borbart derive it from the Arabic, Allaud. The
Lutes of Boulogne are efleem'd the bell, on account of the
Wood, which is faid to have an uncommon Difpofition for
producing a fweet Sound.
LUTHERANISM, the Sentiments of Dr. Martin Iut-
tber, with regard to Religion. Lutberanifm had its Rife
in the i6th Century. Its Author was born at Ei/leben in
Thuringia in 1483. Afier his Studies he enter'd him-
felf among the Auguflmnes. In i5 x, took the Cap of a
Dodor in Theologyin the Univerfity of Wittemburg. In
1 5 1 6, he attack'd the School-Divinity in feveral Thefes.
In 1517, LeoX. having order'd Indulgences to be dif-
pens'd to thofe who fhould contribute towards the build-
ing of St. Peter's at Rome, he gave a Commiflion thereof
to the Dominicans. The Auguflines thinking they had a
Title to it before any body elfe, John Staupitz, their
Commiffary-General, appointed Luther to preach againft
thofe Difpenfers of Indulgences. Luther acquitted him-
felf in a manner that perhaps the Commiffary had not
imagin'd. From the Preachers of Indulgences he pro-
ceeded to Indulgences themfelves, and declaim'd very
warmly both againil the one and the other. At firfi he
only advanc'd ambiguous Propofitions, but being engag'd
in difpute about them, he maintain'd them openly and
without Referve, infomuch that in I 52o he was folemnly
condemn'd and excommunicated by the Pope. But neither
the Pope's Thunder, nor the Condemnation of feveral
Univernities, could make any Impreffion of Terror upon
him; but he continued preaching, writing and difputing,
not againfil Indulgences only, but feveral other Corruptions
that then prevail'd in the Church. The Charaaer of the
Man, the Strength of his Arguments, and the Weaknefs
of his Adverfaries Caufe, foon procur'd him a Number
of Followers. And thus it was that Lurberanwfm was
form'd;  the Adherents whereto were call'd Lutherans,
from Luther, a Name that has a Greek Turn, and which
he affum'd in lieu of his Family-Name, Lotter or Lau-
tber; it being the Cuflom of thofe Days for Men of
Learning to give themfelves Greek Names: witnefs E-
rafmus, Melan~kon, Bucer, &c.  In t 523, Lutber quitted
the Habit of a Religious, and in I 5X4, married; after ha-
ving been a happy Infirument of reforming a great part
of Germany, under the Proteaion of George Duke of Saxony.
He died at his native Place in 1 546.
Lutberani/fm has undergone fome Alterations fince the.
time of its Founder. Luther rejeled the Epiitle of St.
James, as inconfifient with the Docarine of St. Paul in re-
lation to Juffification; he alfo fet afide the A4pocalpfe:
both which are now receiv'd is Canonical in the Latbcrait
Church. Lutber firft reduc'd the Number of Sacraments
to two, viz. Baftifm and the Eucharift i but believ'd the
Impanation or (onfubflantiation: that it, that the Matter
of the Bread and Wine remain with the Body and Blood
of Chrift 5 and 'tis in this Article that the main DiTerence
between the Lutheran and Eyiglil Churches confifis.  Lu-
ther maintained the Mafs to be no Sacrifice; exploded the
Adoration of the Hofl, Auricular Confefllon, Satisfaaory
Works, Indulgences, Purgatory, the Worlhip of Images,
We. which had been introduced in the corrupt Times of
the Romij/ Church.  He alfo oppos'd the Dlorine of
Free Will, maintained Predeflination, alferted that we
are neceflitated in all we do, that all our Actions done
in a State of Sin, and even the Virtues themfelves, of
Heathens, are Crimes; that we are only juflify'd by the
Imputation of the Merits and Satisfaion of Chfris. He
alro oppos'd the Faflings in the Romij# Church, Monaflical
Vows, the Celibate of the Clergy, fec.
Some Authors reckon thirty-nine diEFerent &Sls among
the Lutherans: viz. the Confe/lonifts, call'd alfo Miricainss;
Antinomians, Samofarenfes, Inferains, Antidiapborifts, Anti-
fwenfeldians, Antofandrins, Anticalvi ni/is, Layers on of Haands,
JBifacramentals, Trifacramenrals, Majonites, Adiapborijfs, Qua-
drifacramentals, Luthero-Cal~vinifls, Amnetiies, Mediofandrins,
Confeffionifls firm and wa'vering, S'ufeldians, Onandr ins, Sta-
noanrians, Antifancarians, Zvinglians fimpe, Zuinglias rig-
nificative, Carloflatians, .E'argic Tropifis, Arral'onar~i Afpiri
tual, Sacefeldians, Servetians, Daviricks or Dazid-Georgians,
Memnonites, &c. jovet T. i. .47 -.
LUTHERN, or Dormer, a kind of Window over the
Cornice, in the Roof of a Building; flanding perpendicu-
larly over the Naked of theWall; and ferving to illumine
the Upper-Story. The French Architels diffinguifh thefe
into various kinds, according to their various Forms; as
Square, Semicircular, Bulls Eyes, flat Arches, Flemifl
Lutberns, &c. The Word comes from the Latin Lucerva,
Light or Lanthorn.
LUXATION, in Chirurgery, a Relaxation of the
Tendons or Ligaments, occafioning the Bones to flip out
of their Juncrures, or at leaf to remain very loofely in
their natural Situation. The proper Luxation is when the
Bone is entirely out of the Cavity it fhould move in,
which may be done various ways, and there are as many
ways of reducing it; according to the particular Formation
and Articulation of the Joint: for which, fee the Books
of Prafical Surgery.
LYCANTHROPY, a kind of Phrenzy or Difeafe, that
urges People to run thro the Streets and Fields in the
Night; arifing from the Bite of a mad Wolf. The
Symptoms, Zc. are in mofi refpeas the fame with that of
the Hydrophobia ; which fee. The Word comes from the
Greehe AV<xS, Lupuy, and dv~esrc~- Homo; as who Thould
fay, Man-Wolf.
LYCEUM, the Name of a celebrated School at A-
thens, where Ariflotle explain'd his Philofophy. The Place
was compos'd of Portico's, and Trees planted in the Fi-
gure of an V. Hence the Philofophy of the Lyceum is<
us'd to fignify the Philofophy of AriJfotle, or the Perigea.
tetic Philofophy.
Su;das obferves, that the Place took its Name from its
having been originally a Temple of Apollo, or rather a
Portico or Gallery built by Lycus, Son of Aolo; but
others mention it to have been built by Piftratus or Pe-
LYGMOS. See Hiccup.
LYMPH or LYMPHA, in Anatomy, a thin tranfpa-
rent Humour, fomething like Water; fecreted from the
Serumn of the Blood in all Parts of the Body, and re-
turn'd to the Blood again by proper Duc's of its own;
fuppofed by fome to be the immediate Matter of Nutri-
tion. If the Lympb be chymically examin'd, it will be
found to contain a great deal of volatile, but no fix'd
Salt, fome Phlegm, fome Sulphur, and a little Earth.
The Ufe of the Lymph may be gather'd from the Con-
fideration of the Parts into which it difchargeth itfelf.
That which comes from the Head, Neck, and Arms, is
thrown into the Jugular and Subclavian Veins. All the
Lymphatics, which the Parts in the Cavity in the Thorax
fend out, empty themselves into the Thoracic Du&; i and
the Lympba, from all the redf of the Body, flows to the
common Receptacle j fo that there can he no doubt, but
that its chief Ufe is to dilute and perfea the Chyle be-
fore it mixes with the Blood.
fine, hollow Veffels, generally arifing from the Glands,
and conveying back to the Blood a tranfparent\Liquor,
call'd Lymph or Lympha. Thefe, tho not fo vifible as the

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