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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

Locustae - lysiarcha,   pp. 466-477 PDF (10.9 MB)


Page 474


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in common with Marcion and the other Gneftics. He de-
nied the Immortality of the Soul; afferting it to be ma-
terial.
There was another Sea of Lucianijfs, who appear'd
fome time after theArians. They taught, that the Fa-
ther had been a Father always, and that he had the
Name even before he had begotten the Son i as having in
him the Power or Faculty of Generation : And in this
manner accounted for the Eternity of the Son.
LUCID INTERVALS, the 'Fits or Paroxifms of Ma-
sviacs, wherein the Phrenzy leaves them in poffeififon of
their Reafon. 'Tis faid they are capable of making a
Will in their Lucid Intervals.
LUCIDA CORONA, a fix'd Star of the fecond Mag-
nitude in the Northern Garland. See Star.
LUCIDA LYRA, a bright Star of the firfi Magnitude
in the Confiellation Lyra. See Star.
LUCIFERIAN, the Name of a Se&l, who adhered to
the Schifm of Lucifer de Cagliari, in the fourth Century.
St. Augufn feems to intimate, that they believed the
Soul tranfmitted to the Children by their Fathers. The-
odoret fays, that Lucifer was the Author of a new Error.
The Lxciferians increafed mightily in Gaul, Stain, Egypt,
&c. The Occafion of this Schifm was, that Lucifer
wobld not allow any A&s he had done to be abolished.
There were but few Luciferian Bifhops, but a great Num-
ber of Prieils and Deacons. The Luciferians bore a very
firong Averfian to the Ariam.
LUES properly fignifies a Plague or Contagion, tho'
according to the modern Ufe of the Word, efpecially
when joined with Gallica, or Venerea, it is refirained only
to the Frenct Pox. See Venereal Difeafe.
LUFF, a Sea-Term, the fame with Loof, which fee.
LUMBAGO, Pains very troublefome about the Loins
and the Small of the Back, fuch as precede Ague-Fits
and Fevers.   They arife commonly     from  Fullnefs
and Acrimony; in common with a Difpofition to Yawn-
ings, Shuddering, and erratick Pains in other Parts ; and go
off with Evacuation, generally by Sweat, and other cri-
tical Difcharges of Fevers.
LUMBARES, an Epithet given to thofe Branches of
the Arteria Asrta, which carry the Blood to the Muf-
cles of the Loins. The Term is alfo applied to certain
Veins, which bring back the Blood from the Larns into
the Trunk of the vena Cava. There is alfo a Mufcle of
the Thigh that bears this Name. See Pfoas.
Lgunhares Giandule. See Lafteal Veins.
Lumbares Vent E5 Arteria, feveral fo called, while in
their Patfage thro' the Loins; from Lumbus, Loins.
LUMBRICAL, an Epithet which the Phyficians give
to four Mufcles, that ferve to move the Fingers. They
are call'd Lumbnricales, or Vermiformes, from the Refem-
blance they bear to Worms. There is a like Number in
the Feet.
Lumbricales Mufculi, (called alfo Vermiculares, in regard
of the refemblance they bear to Worms by their Small-
nefs and Shape) are Mufcles of the Hands, common-
ly fuppofed to be nothing but Branches of the Ten-
dons of the Perforans, which go to the Infide of the
Eirtl Bone on each Finger, and are fuppofed to con-
tribute to the Variety of Motions with the Fingers, by
giving a Diverfion to the direa Aafions of the other Muf-
cles; but fim ply, they only ferve to draw the Fingers
towards the Thumb. Mr. Cowper indeed obferves, that
fome of them have diftinc Origins; and fufpeas that
the reff may have fo too, and therefore makes them di-
fLin&q Mufcles.
There are alfo Lumbricale s of the Foot, which arife as
in the Hand, one from each Tl'endon of the Ferforans or
Yrofundus, and go to the Infide of each of the leffer Toes.
LUNA, in the Jargon of the Chymifis, fignifies Sil-
ver; from the fuppofed Influence of that Planet (the
Moon) thereupon. The Medicinal Virtues of this Metal,
Dr. Qeincy fays, are none at all, until it hath undergone
very elahorate Preparations. See Silver.
LUNAR1  , fomet in  belonging to the Moon. Lunar
Yeriedical Montbs confift of a 7 Days and a few Hours; Lu-
war Synodical Montbs of 29 Days, 1 2 Hours, and three quar-
ters of an Hour. See Montb. Lunar Tears confifd of 354
Days, or ia Synodical Months. In the firf Ages the Year
accounted by all Nations was Lunar; the Variety in Courfe
being more frequent in this Planet, and of confequence
more confpicuous, and better known to Men than thofe of
any others. The Romanis regulated their Year, in part, by
the Moon till the time of Caar. See Tear. The Slews too
had their Lunar Months. Some Rabbins pretend that
the Lunar Month did not commence till the moment the
Woon began to appear, and that there was a Law, which
obliged the Perfon who discovered it, firfl, to go and inform
the Senate thereof. Upon which, the Prefident folemnly
pronounced the Month began; and Notice, was given of it
LUN
to the People by Fires lighted on the Tops of Mountains.
But this looks fomewhat chimerical.
LUNATIC, fomething af]Feced or governed by the
Moon. Hence mad People are called Lunatics, it having
antiently been an Opinion, that fuch Perrons were much
influenced by that Planet.  A much founder Philofo-
phy hath taught us, that there is fomething in it , but
not in the manner the Antients imagined ; nor otherwife
than what it has in common with other heavenly Bodies,
occafioning various Alterations in the Gravity of our At-
molbhere, and thereby affefing human Bodies. See Co-
met, Planet, &c. See alfo Tides.
LUNATION, a Revolution of the Moon, or the Time
between one New Moon and another i which is called a
S.ynodical Mend, confifling of 29 Daysy i z Hours, and
three quarters of an Hour. At the end of ig Years the
fame Lunations always retutn, on the fame Day, but not
at the fame precife Time of the Day ; there being a Dif-
ference of one Hour, 27 Minutes, and 3 3 Seconds. Here-
in the Antients were miflaken, taking the Ufe of the
Golden Number to be more fure and infallible than it is.
It has been found fince, that in 312 Years and an half
the Lunations gained a Day on the beginning of the
Month; fo that when they came to reform the Calen-
dar, the Lunatians happened in the Heavens four or five
Days fooner than was ffiewn by the Golden Number. To
remedy which, we now make ufe of the perpetual Cycle
of Eplas. We take 19 Epaais, which anfwer to a Cyclo
of 19 Years; and when at the end of 30c Years the Moon
has gain'd a Day, we take i9 other Epals: which is alfo
done, when by the Omiffion of an Intercalary Day,
which happens three times in 400 Years, the Calendar is
adjufled to the Sun. Care is taken that the Index of the
Epafts mufi never be changed, excepting at the Conclu-
fion of a Century, when there is occafion for it, on account
of the Metemptofis or Proemptofis; that is, of the Lunar
or Solar Equation. When the Biffextile or Intercalary
Day is fupprefs'd without aLurar Equation, the next fol-
lowing or lower Index is taken, as was done in 1700.
When there is a Lunar Equation without fupprefling the
Bifextile, the next preceding or higher Index is taken i
as will be done in z4oo. When there is both an Equation
and a Sappreffion, as in i Boo  or neither the one nor the
other, as in 2ooo ; the fame Index is retain'd. See Motwh,
Moon, &c.
LUNE, or Lunula, in Geometry, a Plane, in figure of
a Crefcent or Half Moon, terminated by the Circumfe-
rence of two Circles that interfe& each other within.
Tho the Quadrature of the intire Circle was never yet
effeaed, yet the Geometricians havefound out the Squares
of many of its Parts. The firfi partial Quadrature was
that of the Lunula, given by Hippocrates of Scio, who of a
Ihipwrecked Merchant commenced Geometrician. Let
A   B. (Tab.Geometry,Fig.S.) be a Semicircle,and G C  G B;
with the Radius B C defcribe a Quadrant A F B; then
will A E B F A    be Hippocrates's Lune.  And fince
B C '-=    G B ', the Quadrant A G B C will be equal
to the Semicircle A E B; taking away therefore from
each the common Segment A F G A; A E B F A = to
the Triangle A C B = G B2.
LUNETTES, in Fortification, are Enveloppes, Coun-
terguards, or Mounts of Earth cafi up before the Curtain,
about five Fathom in breadth. They are ufually made
in Ditches full of Water, and ferve to the fame purpofo
as Falfe Braies. Thefe Lunettes are compofed of two Fa-
ces, which form a re-entering Angle; and their Platform
being only twelve foot wide, is a little raifed above the
Level of the Water ; and hath a Parapet three Fathom
thick.
LUNGS, a Part in the Human Body, confifling of
Veffels and membranous Veficles; and ferving for Refpi-
ration. The Lungs are conneded, above, to the Fauces, by
means of the Trachea; and below, to the Vertebrle of the
Tborax  and to the Sternum and Diapbragma by means of
the Pleura. They are divided into two great Lobes by
the Mediaflinum, and thofe again into others leffer; the
right fornetimes into three or four, by means of fome
Fiffures running from the fore to the back Edge. The
great Lobes, when inflated, refemble each of them a
Horfe's Hoofin Figure, but together they are liker an
Ox's inverted.
The Subftance of the Lungs is membranous, confiding
chiefly of innumerable Cells or Veficles; which feem to be
nothing but Expanfions of the Membranes of the Bron-
cbia, to which they bang like Grapes in Clufilers i fo that
by blowing into one of the Branches of the Broncbia, thofe
Cells or Veficles belonging to it are blown up; the refl,
which do not, remaining flill flaccid and unaltered.
Thefe Cluffers of Veficles or Cells are called the Inter-
nsal Lobules, by which Name they are diffinguifhed from
the lefTer Lobes fpoken of. They are feparated from
one
LUM


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