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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Locustae - lysiarcha,   pp. 466-477 PDF (10.9 MB)

Page 470

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firil general Rules in Algebras of Additioti, Subflrac-
tion, &c.
LOGOGRIPHE, a kind of Symbol or Riddle, pro-
pofed to Students for their Solution in order to exercife
and improve the Mind. It ufually confifts in fome
equivocal Allufion or Mutilation of Wordsj which, lite-
rally taken, fignify Something different from the thing in-
tended by it; Co that it is a kind of Medium between a
Rebus and proper Enigma. According to Kircher, Logo-
gripkes are a kind of fpeaking Arms.  Thus a Perfon
called Leonard, who bore in his Arms a Lion, and Nard
or Spikenard, according to that Father, made a Logo-
griphe; Oedip. Egypt. In another Place however he de-
fines a Loeogriphe to be an Enigma, which under one
Name or Word will bear various Meanings, by adding or
retrenching fome Part of it. Thefe kind of lEnigma's
are well known to the Arabs, among whom are Authors
who treat exprefly of them. The Word comes from the
Greek A6~'fi, Difcourfe, and 7evF-, Net.
LOHOCH. See Loch.
LOINS, in Anatomy, are the lower Part of the Spine
of the Back, compofed of five Vertebre, larger than
thofe of the Back, and ferving them as a Bafe, having
their Articulations pretty loofe, that the Motion of the
Loins may be more free.
LOLLARDS, the Name of a Sect that rofe in Germany
about the beginning of the s4th Century. It took its
Name from its Author Lollard Walter, who began to dog-
matize in 1 31 5. Befides exploding many of the Rom./h
Doarines, he is likewife aid to have Cet afide Baptifm as
a thing of no effect, and Repentance as not absolutely
neceffary, se. Lollard was burnt alive at Cologne in I 3-2.
In England the Followers of Wickiif were called, by
way of Reproach, Lollards, from fome Affinity there was
between fome of their Tenets; others, however, are of
Opinion, that the Englo Lollards came from Germany-
They were Colemnly condemned by the Archbifhop of
Canterbury and the Council of Oxford. The Monk of
Canterbury derives the Ufe of the Word Lollard among us
from Lolium, a Tare, as if the Lollards were the Tares
fown in Chrift's Vineyard. Abelly Cays, that the Word
Lollard fignifies praifing God, from the German loben, to
praife, and Herr, Lord, becaufe the Lollards imploy'd them-
felves in travelling about from Place to Place, finging
Pfalms and Hymns.
LONGUS, Long, an Epithet given by the Anatomifls
to a great Number of Mufcles. The fecond Extenfor of
the Carpus is called the Longus, in comparison of the
third Extenfor, which is called brevis, jbort. The Longus
has its Origin in the bottom of the Humerus, and lying a-
long the Radius, paffes underneath the Ligamentum Annu-
lare, and is inferted into the Carpus.
The Cecond Mufcle of the Flexors of the Neck is alfo
called the Lmngus, and Sometimes the Redus. It has its
Origin in the lateral Part of the Body of the four upper
Vertebre of the Back, and is inferted into the Body of
the four Vertelnr-e of the Neck, and Sometimes into the
Occiput; this, in conjundion with the Scalenum, bends
the Neck.
The third of the fix Mufcles of the Elbow or Arm,
which is the firfl of its Extenfors, is alfo called the Lon-
gus, as being the longeff of the Extenfors. It has its Ori.
gin on the upper Side of the Omoplate, near the Neck,
and defcending by the hind Part of the Arm, is inferted
into the Olecranumn by a firong Aponeurofis, which is com-
mon to it and the fecond and third Extenfor of the Arm.
The fecond Mufcle of the Thumb, which is the firfi of
its Extenfors, is alfo called Longus, as being longer than
another Extenfor of the fame Thumb, called Brevis.
The Longus proceeds from the upper and external Part of
the Bone of the Elbow, and rifing over the Radius, is in-
ferted by. a forked Tendon into the fecond Bone of the
Thumb, which it extends
One of the four Mufcles of the Radius is alfo called the
Longus. Thisis the firft of the two Supinators, and has
its Origin three or four Fingers breadth above the outer
,4popbfyis of the Humerus, whence running along the Ra-
dius, it is inferted into the inner Part of its lower Apkphy-
fis. It is called Longus with regard to the other Supinator,
which is called Brevis. Thefe two Mufcles ferve to turn
the Radius, fo as the Palm  of the Hand looks upwards;
which makes the Supination.
Lafily, the firfl of the Abducjors of the Leg is called
the Longus, and bearsthis Title more juflly than any of
theothers, as being the longeff Mufcle in the whole Bo-
dy. It is alfo called Sartorius, becaufe it Cerves to bend
the Leg inwards, as the Taylors ufe to have it when at
work. SeeSartorius.
LONG ACCENT, in Grammar, Fec. liews that the
Voice is to flop upon the Vowel, that hath that Mark, and
it is expreffed thus (-).
LONG MEASURE. See Meafure.
LONGAEVlTY, Length of Life. From the different
Longevities of Men in the beginning of the World, after
the Flood, and in thefe Ages, Mr. Derbam draws a good
Argument for the Inrerpofition of a Divine Providence.
Immediately after the Creation, when the World was to
be peopled by one Man and one Woman, the ordinary
Age was 900 and upwards. Immediately after the Flood,
when there were three Perfons to flock the World, their
Age was cut Ihorter, and none of thofe Patriarchs but
Sbem arrived at soo. In the Cecond Century we find none
that reach'd 240, in the third none but Terab that came,
to 200 Years: The World, at leaft a part of it, by that
time being fo well peopled, that they had built Cities,
and were canton'd out into diflant Nations. By degrees,
as the Number of People increas'd, their Longevity dwin-
dled; till it came down at length to 70 or So Years: and
there it flood, and has continued to Land ever fince the
Time of Mofes. This is found a good Medium, and by
means hereof the World is neither overflock'd, nor kept
too thin; but Life and Death keep a pretty equal pace.
See Mortality.
That the common Age of Man has been the fame in all
Ages fince the World was peopled, is plain both from
Sacred and Profane Hiflory. To pafs by others, Plato
lived to Sr, and was accounted an Old Man; and the In-
flances of Longevity produced by Pliny, 1. 7. c. 48. as very
extraordinary, may moff of 'em be match'd in modern
Hillories ; particularly in Dr. Plott's Nat. Hif&. of Oxf.
and Staff. Among others, he tells of twelve Tenants to
the fame Perfon, who made up icco Years; to Cay no-
thing of Old Parre, who lived x 5z Years 9 Months; or of
H. yenkins of YorkJhire, who lived 169 Years; or of the
Countefs of Defiond, or Mr. Ecklefton, both of Ireland,
who eachexceeded 140 Years. See Life.
LONG-BOAT is the largefr and firongefi Boat be-
longing to a Ship, that can be hoifled a-board of her.
Its Ufe is to bring any Goods, Provifion, &c. to or from
the Ship, or, on Occafion, to land Men any where, and
particularly to weigh the Anchor.
LONGIMETRY, the Art of meafuring Lengths; both
acceffible, as Roads, Ec. and inacceflible, as Arms of the
Sea, Cc. Longimetry is a Part of Trigonometry, and a
Dependant on Geometry, in the fame manner as Altime-
try, Planimetry, Stereometry, T&c. The Art of Longime-
try Cee under the N~ames of the Infiruments ufed in it,
particularly Theodolite, Chain, &c.
LONGISSIMUS DORSI is a Mufcle of the Back,
that at its beginning is not to be ditlinguifhed from the
Sacro-lumbaris, arifing with it from the hinder Part of the
Os Ilium, and Os Sacrum, and the firil Vertebra of the
Loins; it runs upwards along the whole Tra& of the
Back, and is connecfed by Tendons to each trarfverfe
Procefs in its way, and ends Cometimes in the firft Ver-
tebra of the Back, and Sometimes in the firff of the Neck 5
and, as Come Authors Cay, reaches now and then to the
Proce/Jus Mamillaris of the Os Petrofm.  In conjunclion
with fome others, this helps to keep the Body ere&.
LONGISSIMUS OCULI, the Name of a Mufcle.
See ObliqvusSuperior.
LONGITUDE of a Place, in Geography, is its Di-
(lance from fome firfi Meridian; or an Arc of the Equator
intercepted between the Meridian of the Place, and the
firfi Meridian; or the Difference Eafi and Weil between
the Meridians of any two Places, counted on the.Equator.
To difcover an exaa Method of finding the Longitude,
efpecially at Sea, is a Problem, that has extremely per-
plex'd the Mathematicians of thefe two laft Ages; and
for the Solution whereof, great Rewafds have been pub-
lickly offer'd by the EngliJ, French, Dutch, and other
Nations: this being the only thing wanting to render
Navigation perfed. Various are the Attempts that Au-
thors have made for this purpofe, and various the Me-
thods they have propofed, but fill without Succefs; all
their Schemes being found either falfe, precarious, im-
praclicable, or in Come way or other defecLive: Co that
the Palm is fill unafcertain'd. What they mofi of 'em
aim at, is a Method of determining the Difference of
Time between any two Points on the Earth; for every
X 5 Degrees of the Equator anfwering to an Hour, i. e. one
Degree to 4 Minutes of Time, and one Minute of a De-
gree to I5 Seconds of Time; the Difference of Time
being known and turn'd into Degrees, will give the Lon-
gitude, and vice verfa. This fome have pretended to ef-
fea by Clocks, Watches, and other automata; but always
in vain; no Time-keeper, excepting a Pendulum (which
cannot be applied at Sea) being fufficiently fure and ex-
aal for the purpofe.
Others, with more probability, and to better purpofe,
fearch for it in the Heavens; for if the exaft Times of
any Celeflial Appearance be known for two Places, the

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