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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

Clausum - coining,   pp. 233-252 PDF (18.5 MB)


Page 243


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* frequently open, and diverflfy'd
everal Colours, alternately plac'd,
leted, water'd, &Yc. hence they
r Divifes; as being divided, or
*s, fiew'd together; whence the
'ron, !A'end, Crofs, Salteer, Lo-
ce made the honourable Pieces, or
-e each in its Place, FESSE, BEND,
CROSS, EIC.
Coats of Arms, and B'anners, were never allow'd to be
wore by any but Knights, and antient Nobles. See ESCUT-
CHXEON, GC.
CoAT of Mail, or 7acques de Mail, a kind of Armour
made in form of a Shirt 5 confifing of Iron Rings wove to-
gether. See MAIL.
COAT, in Anatomy. See TuNic.
COBALT, in Natural Hiflory, a kind of Natural Cad-
mia, out of which is drawn Bizmuth, Arfenic, and Smalt.
See CADMIA, BIZMJTH, ARSENIC, bC.
t Cobalt ufually contains a little Silver. There are various
Mines of Cobalt, efpecially in Saxony; fome in France and
England.
COCCIFEROUS, in Botany, fuch Plants, or Trees, as
bear Berries. See BERRY.
COCCIGIS, or COCCIE OS, in Anatomy, a Bone join'd
to the Extremity of the Os Sacrum; compos'd of three or
four Bones, whereof the lower is flill lefs than the upper, till
the laft ends in a fmall Cartilage.
It refembles a little Tail turned inwards; or rather, as
fome imagine, the Beak of a Cuckow 3 whence the Name.
Its Ufe is to fuflain the Tirait. Gut: It yields to the Prefflure
of the Fxtus in Women in travail; and Midwives ufe to
thruft it backwards 5 but fometimes rudely and violently,
which is the occafion of great Pain, and feveral bad Effeds.
ICOCCULUS Indicus, a poifonous Narcotick Berry,
known mofily now to Poachers, who have got a trick of in-
toxicating Fifh therewith, fo as to take them out ofthe Wa-
ter with their Hands ; for which Reafon they are called
sacke Pifcatorie, Fifhers Berries.
COCHINEAL, or COCHENEAL, a Drug us'd by the
Dyers, fic. for giving red Colours, efpecially Crimfons, and
Scarlets. See RED, SCARLET, &C.
It is brought from the Weft Indies: but Authors are di-
vided as to its Nature; fome taking it to be a kind of Worm,
and others the Grain of a Tree. F. Plumier, the Minime, a
celebrated Botanill, has maintain'd the former Opinion, and
!Pomet the latter.
It may perhaps be faid, that they are both equally diflant
fiom the Truth in the Defcription they have given of Cochi-
weal; and yet that there is both a Cochineal which is a Worm,
and another a Grain. This Opinion is founded on the Ac-
count given by flam pier3 . who gives a precife Defcription of
each kind: If it ben't true, 'tis at leafl more likely than any
Opinion yet propos'd. , His Defcription of each is as follows:
i' The Cochineal W>orm, is an Infedt ingender'd in a Fruit
4 refembling a Pear: The Shrub which bears it is five or fix
' Foot high. A-top of the Fruit grows a red Flower, which
' when mature falls on the Fruit; and that opening, difco.
vets a Cleft two or three Inches in Diameter. The Fruit
' then appears full of little red Infeas, having Wings of a
' furprizing fmallnefs, and which would die and rot there, if
' not taken out.
' The Indians, therefore, Spreading Cloth under the Tree,
' lhake it with Poles till the Infets are forc'd to quit their
4 Lodging, and fly about the Tree; which they cannot do
' many Moments, but tumble down dead into the Cloth;
where they are left till they be entirely dry: When the
' Infe& flies it is red; when it is fallen, black; and when
dry, white; tho it afterwards changes Colour.
There are whole Plantations of the Cochineal Tree, or
Tonna, as the Natives call it, about Guatimala, Chepe, and
Guexaca, in the Kingdom of Mexico.
Cochineal Grain, or, as Dam pier calls it. Sylvedcris. is a
Berry, growing in America, found in a Fruiit re~fembling
of the Cochineal Tree, or Zonna. The firff Shoots
ice a yellow Flower; then comes the Fruit, which is
and when ripe opens with a Cleft of three or four In-
The Fruit is full of Pippins, or Grains, which fall on
laf1 Agitation, and which the Indians take care to ga-
fight or ten of thefe Fruits may yield about an
:e of rain.
'is Berry yields a Dye almoff as beautiful as that of the
Pa; and a Perton may be eafily deceiv'd in them  tho
irf is much lefs effeem'd. See DYING.
r-bineal is us'd in Medicine as an Alexipharmic. tending
to Promote Sweating, and alfo as a Cordial.
ICOCHLEA, in Mechanicks, one of the five mechanical
Powers    i otherwife called the Screw. See ScrEw.
It is thus call'd, from the resemblance a : Screw bears to
the lpiral Shell of 'a Snail,, which the Lattins call Coclea.
IULHLEA, in Anatomy, is the laft Canal, or Cavity of
:Bar -thus call'd from its helical Form. See EAL.
C O c
The Cochlea is divided into two Parts, the u per, and
lower, by a thin, fpiral Lamina; of which the Rart next
the Axis is bony, but extremely brittle3 and that, next the
outer Shell, membranous appearing to be only made of an
Expanfion of the Auditory Nerve. See NERvE.
The upper Canal opens into the *ympanum, and the
lower into the Veftibulum: this is narrower than that, efpe-
cially towards the Bafis of the Cochlea i where each is about
a Line wide; and the Bafis it felf is about four Lines in
Diameter. See HEARING.
COCK of a !Dial, the Pin, Style, or Gnomon. See DIAL,
STYLE, and GNOMON.
COCKET, a Seal belonging to the King's Cuflom-houfe.
See SEAL, SC.
COCrET is alfo a Scroll of Parchment, fealed and deli-
ver'd by the Officers of the Cuflom-houfe to the Merchants,
upon entering their Goods, certifying that the Goods were
cuforomed. See CUSTOMS.
The fame Word is alfo ufed in the Statutes of Bread and
Ale, 15 Hen. III. where there is mentioned Cocket Bread,
among feveral other Kinds: It feems to have been hard Sea-
Bilket, which perhaps had then fome Cocket,Mark, orSeal;
or elfe was fo called from its being defign'd for the ufe of,
the Cockfwains, or Seamen.
COCKLE-Stairs. See STAIRS.
COCKING-CLOTH, a Devife for the catching of Phea-
fants withal.
It confills of a piece of coarfe Canvas, about an Ell fquare,
dipp'd in a Tan Pit to colour it; and kept firetch'd by two
Sticks, placed from corner to corner, diagonal-wife: a Hole
to be left to peep thro'. The Gameffer, then, being pro-
vided of a Short Gun; carries the Cloth before him at Arms
end; under cover of which, he may approach his Game as
near as he pleafes: when near enough, he puts the Nofel
of his Gun thro' the Hole, and {hoots.
COCKPIT, a fort of Theatre, whereon Game-Cocks fight
their Battels.
The Cock-Pit is ufually a Houfe, or Hovel cover'd over:
They fight on the Clod, or green Sod; which is generally
mark'd out round, and incompafs'd with Seats, one above
another.
The COCK-PIT Laces, are principally there: When Cocks
are fet, none to be on the Sod but the two Setters. When
the Cocks are fet Beak to Beak in the middle of the Clod,
and there left by the Setters, if the fet Cock do not firike
in counting twenty, and fix times ten, and twenty after all,
the Battel is loll: but if he do firike, the Battel is to begin
again, and they muff count again. If any offer a Mark to
a Groat, or 40 to I, and the Wager be taken, the Cock
muft be fet, and they are to fight it out. Done, and done,
is a fufficient Bet, or Wager, when the Cocks are. caft on
the Clod.
COCK-PIT, in a Man of War, is a Place on the lower Floor,
or Deck, abaft the main Capflan, lying between the Plat-
form and the Steward's Room; where are Subdivifions or
Partitions for the Purfer, the Surgeon, and his Mates.
COCK-ROAD, a Contrivance for the taking of Wood-
cocks.
As that Bird lies clofe by day, under foome Hedge, or
near the Root of an old Tree, to peck for Worms under dry
Leaves, and will fcarce fir out, unlefs diffurb'd, as not fee-
ing his way fo well in the Morning; toward the Evening he
takes Wing, to feek for Water; flying generally low, and
when he finds any thorowfare in a Wood ventures thro' it.
To take 'em, therefore, they plant Nets in fuch Places ;
or, for want of fuch Places ready to their hands, they cut
Roads thro' Woods, Thickets, Groves, Fec.
Thefe Roads they ufually make 3 5 or 40 Foot broad, per-
fefly firait and clear; and to two oppofite Trees they tie
the Net, which has a Stone faflen'd to each corner. Then,
having a Stand, or Place to lie conceal'd in, at a proper dif-
tance, with a Stake near the fame; to farlen the Lines
of the Net to: when they perceive the Game flying up the
Road, they unwind the Lines from of the Stake; upon
which, the Stones drawing it down, the Birds are intangled
in the fame.
COCK-SWAIN, or COCKSON, is an Officer on board
a Man of War, who hath the care of the Barge, or Sloop,
and all things belonging to it; to be always ready with his
Boat's-Gang, or Crew, and to Man the Boat on all Occa-
fions.
He fits in the Stern of the Boat, and fleers; and hath a
Whifile to call and encourage his Men.
COOOA, or more jufily CACAO, the Nut whofe Kernel
yields the Chocolate. See CACAO, and CHOCOLATE.
COCOS, or COCO, is alfo ufed for a Nut, whofe Shell is
much uf  by Turners, Carvers, Wc. for divers Works ;
The Cco Tree, which the Malabars call Ylenga, ii drait,
ihoutv any Branches, and ordinarily thirty or foity Foot
hig iits Wood is too fpongious to be ued in CrPentry.
A-top it bears twelve Leaves, ten Foot long, and halfra Foot
Reruads
.
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