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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Clausum - coining,   pp. 233-252 PDF (18.5 MB)

Page 242

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Ufe, ec. we diffinguiih Stage-Coacbes, Hackney-<Coscbes, &c.
Chariot, or Half-Coacb, is a kind of Coacb that has only
a Seat behind; with a Stool, at mofl, before. When thefe
are very gay, richly garnifh'd, and have five Glafles, they,
are call'd Calaibes.
Cal    ~ is alfo a kind of light fmall Coach, with very low
Wheels, richly adorn'd; us'd on occafion of Pleafure , and
open on all fidesi to take the Air, and enjoy the Profpea.
There are of thefe Calajhes with one, two, and three Seats;
where the Perfons don't fit facing one another, as in the
common Coaches, but all forwards, each Seat having its back.
iackney COACHES, thofe expos'd to hire, in the Streets of
London, and fome other Capital Cities, at Rates fix'd by
Thofe in London are under the Dire&ion of Commiffio-
ners, who take cognizance of all Caufes and Difputes arifing
thereupon. They are di{linguiffi'd by Numbers affix'd to
the Coach-Doors 5 and the Fares, or Rates, fix'd by a Sta-
tute 14 Car. II. and confirm'd by another in the 5th and 6th
of K. William III.
For a whole Day of twelve Hours the Fare is I os. for a
fingle Hour I S. 6 d. for every Hour after the firlr i s. At
thefe Rates, they are oblig'd to carry Pafiengers any where
within to Miles of London.
Stage-COACHEs, are thofe deffin'd for the Conveyance of
Travellers from one City or Town to another.
COADJUTOR, q. d. a Fellow-helper, is properly ufed
for a Prelate join'd to another, to affill him in the Difcharge
of the Funaions of his Prelature; and even, in virtue there-
of, to fucceed him.
The Coadjutor has the fame Privileges with the Bifhop
himfelf. See BisHor.
Coadjutors were appointed by the King, for Archbilhops
and Bifhops grown old, or abfent, and not able to adminifter
in their Diocefes. But the Right of appointing Coadjutors
is now referv'd to the Pope alone.
Coadjvtors are called Bilhops in partibus infidelium; in
regard it is necesfary the Coadjutor of a Bifhop lhould be a
Bilhop himfelfi without which, he can'tdifcharge theOffices.
The Ufe of Coadjutors in the Church, is borrow'd from
the Roman Empire. Symmacbus fpeaks of Affiflants, or
Coadjutors, given to Magifirates; and calls them  Adjutores
publici ofcii.
The Popes, formerly, made a Ihameful Abufe of the Coad-
jutories: Some they granted to Children, and young People,
with this Claufe, Donec ingrejsus fuerit ;  Till they were
capable of entering upon the Adminifiration of the Office.'
Others they granted to Perfons not in Orders, with this
Claufe, Doiwec accefferit: and others to Perfons at a great
diflance, with this Claufe, C'fm regreJfus: But the Council
of Y'rent ty'd down the Pope's Hands, by adding abundance
of Refiridions upon the Article of Coadjutors.
In Nunneries they have Coadjutrix's; who are Religi-
ous nominated to fucceed the Abbefs, under pretence of aid-
ing her in the Difcharge of her Office. See ABBESS.
COAGMENTATION, is ufed among Chymifs, for the
A&t of melting down a Matter, by calling in certain Pouders,
and afterwards reducing the whole into a Concrete, or Solid.
COAGULATION, the condenfing or thickning of a
fluid Matter, without its lofing any of the fenfible Parts which
occafion'd its fluidity; as we frequently fee in Blood, Milk,
&$c. See FLUID.
We diflinguiih between that kind of thickening which
is ef&c1ed by the Evaporation of the fluid Parts of a Body,
as in Clay, which condenfes in the Sun, which we properly
call hardening; and that effeaed without any lofs oits'Sub-
fiance, which we call coagulating. Thus, we fay, that Cold
coagulates Blood, Cc.
There is one general Term, viz. Concretion, which in-
cludes both Coagulation, Coadenfation and Hardening. See
Coagulation is perform'd by the mixing of Salts of different
Natures; as when Spirit of Vitriol is pour'd on Oil of Tar-
tar; or when Oils are mix'd in a Mortar with faline, or aque-
ous Liquors, as in Nutrition.
By injecing an Acid into the Vein of an Animal, the
Blood coagulates i which flops its Circulation, and brings im-
mediate Death. See BLOOD.
Several Poifons have their effeL by inducing a Coagula-
tion. See POISON.
COAL, a black, fulphurous, inflammable Matter, dug
out of the Earth; ferving in many Countries as the common
Fuel. See FUEL.
This we fometimes call Pit-Coal, fometimes Sea-Coal,
FoIil-Cbal, Earth-Coal, and N4atural Coal; to diftinguilh it
fiom  an Artificial Fuel made in imitation hereof, by half
burning the Branches and Roots of Trees; properly call'd
Charcoal, and Sallcoal. See CHARCOAL,
Pit-GOAL is rank'd amiong the number of Minerals, and
the Places it is dug out of are call'd Coal-.Mines, or Coal-
'Pits. It is common in moft Countries of Europe: tho
tho Engli/h Coal is of moll repute, even in foreign Countries;
notwithfianding fome pretend, that of the PO,
is not any thing inferior to it.
The Goodnefs of Coal confifis in its be
poffible from Sulphur, in its heating Iron v
burning a long time in the Smith's Forge. TI
has this particular to it; that it never lights
when Water is-thrown on it.
The Commerce of Coal is very confiderabl
great Quantities are exported to France, E
Rouen. The Meafure whereby they are fol
dron; containing 3 6 Thjhels. See BuSH EL.
In the Memoirs of the French Royal Aca(
an Account of two Experiments on the corr
made by M. !Des Landes while in England,
thinks have efcap'd the EngliJh Philofophers
11          t  .   1  -1U iU L  -IfJt   1 1 1 U i
ALL, &%U1UI}UAr, 1VXI1i,, L.WW&, 41la pUtLL11 114J1 all WunceL jlitm
in a Viol of Water, the Mixture became quite black. btt
leaving it expos'd to the Air in a Window, during a
Winter Night in the Morning 'twas found frozen, andc~o
verted into a reddifh Colour. The Reafon of the Change
muff be, that the Froft had difengag'd the Sulphurs of the
Coal: tho one would little exped fuch an Effe& from it, q
2dly, From an Infufion of Cinders in Brandy, mix'd with
Iroa Filings, arifes a black Tincture,, which brightens in pro:
portion as it is heated; when arriv'd at the height of boil.
ing, the Colour becomes perfeffly fine and foft; and givetsa
Dye to Cloth, which no Workman can imitate.
The Strata, or Veins of Coals in Coalpits are numr
and their Order, Qualities, ec. different in difrent Plas
In thofe at Dudley in Stafford/hire, the Strata, beloi
Turf, two or three Clays, a grey Stone, and a hard
Rock, are exprefs'd in the PPhilofophical Tlranfaiffions
ifl, Coal, called Jlench-Coal; zd, Slipper-Coal, lefs
and lhining than the former; 3d, Spin-Coal, more
and Shining; 4th, Stone-Coal, much like Canal-Coal.
Thefe Strata have between each of 'em a jBat, or B
a peculiar fort of Matter, about the thicknefs of a Crown-Piu
I r      1     f   A. -  1_       - I I - L IAS Ln-
Below thele are divers metalline Strata ; as a blaclc Sbic~
call'd the Dun-ro'w bat ; a grey Iron Ore, call'd the D run
Iron-flone; a bluilh Bat, call'd Wbite-ro'w; a blackifh
Ore, call'd White-row grains, or Ironslone - a grey
Ore, call'd Mid-row grains; a black foffil Subilancecall'i
n      oar; 7a7. __  -hciro  j Au -   _A2S-LI TA idu u-.jw
Guana1g vat ; a Dlack iron kirv, canl auzYxV11Tn .ulii:gw~
dark grey Iron Ore, call'd Rubble Iron-ftone: the Table
Then, 59, comes a coarfe fort of Coal, call'd Foot-Co,
black brittle Bat: 6th, the Heathen Coal; 7th, a Subi
like coarfe Coal i tho call'd a Bat, becaufe it does not
well; And 8th, 7ench-Coal.
Small-COAL is prepar'd from the Spray, and Brufh N
firipp'd off from 'the Branches of Coppice Wood; fombi
times bound in Bavins for that purpofe, and fometimes pro,
par'd without binding.
The Wood they difpofe on a level Floor, and fetting s
Portion of it on fire, throw on more and more, as fafil as it
kindles ; whence arifes a fudden blaze, till all be burnt that
was near the Place. As foon as all the Wood is thrown o,
they call Water on the Heap, from a large Difh, or Scoops
and thus keep plying the Heap of glowing Coals, which flops
the Fury of the Fire, while with a Rake they fpread it open,
and turn it with Shovels till no more Fire appears. Whe
cold, they are put up into Sacks for ufe.
Cbar-COAL, fee its Preparation under CHARCOAL.
COALITION, the reunion, or growing together of Parsm
before feparated. In this Senfe, the Word is us'd both in a
Phyfical and a Moral Senfe.
COAST, a Sea-mhore, or the Country adjoining to He
Edge of the Sea. See SEA, Ce'C..
COASTING, that Part of Navigation, wherein the PlaPes
affign'd are not far diflant; fo that a Ship may fail in ft
of the Land, or within founding, between the 'iaces.
Such are the Voyages on the Narrow? or ShritpS,
between England, Holland, and France; alfo thofe aot
the Britilh Seas, and in the Mediterranean, &h
For the Perfbrmance hereof, there is only requir'd g
knowledge of the Land, the Ufe of the Compafs, and of rh
Lead, or Sounding-Line. See CoMpAss, SOuNDING, ec-
CoASTING,'in Agriculture, &'c. the tranfiplanting of a 71rc
and placing it in the fame Situation, with refpeA to Ed
Well, North, Lec. as it flood in before. See PLANTING, al
COAT of Arms, in Heraldry, a Cloke, or Habit bore b)
the antient Knights over their Arms, both in War, and at
Tournaments; and fill bore by the Heralds at Arms. SOP
It was a kind of Jacket, reaching only as low as the NR:
vel; open at the Sides, with fhort Sleeves ; fometitnos
furr'd with Ermins and Vair, whereon were apply'd the M
mories of the Knight, embroider'd in Gold and Silver, and
enamell'd with Colours of beaten Tin, colour'd black, grewA
red, and blue; whence the Rule, never to apply Colour oU
Colour, nor Metal on Metal.                      h

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