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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Clausum - coining,   pp. 233-252 PDF (18.5 MB)

Page 240

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It may  be obferv'd, that the more the Thteads of the
Woof are firuck againil each other, the clnfer the Cloth is :
hence it becomes enabled to fuflain the Violence of the Ful-
ling-Mill, as well as of the Teazel, or Fulling-Thille, with-
out fretting or opening.
The Weavers having continu'd their Work till the whole
Warp is fill'd with Woof, the Cloth is finiih'd: 'Tis taken
off the Loom, by unrolling it from the Beam whereon it
had been roll'd, in proportion as it was wove i and now given
uto be clear'd of the Knots, ends of Thread, Straws, and
other Filth; which is done with little Iron Pinchers.
In this Condition 'tis carried to the Fullery, to be fcour'd
with Urine, or a kind of glaz'd Earth well clean'd and fleep'd
in Water, put along with the Cloth in  the Trough, where-
in it is fulled.
The Cloth being again clear'd from the Earth, or Urine,
by wathing it in Water, is return'd to the former Hands,
to have the leffer Filth, fmall Straws, andalmoftimpercepti-
ble Knots taken off as before: then 'tis return'd to the Fuller,
to be beat, and full'd with hot Water, wherein five or fix
Pounds!of Soap have been'difolv'd. The Soap moft efleem'd
is the white, efpecially that of Genoa. After fulling an Hour
and a half, 'tis taken out to be fmooth'd, i. e. to he pull'd
by the Liuls lengthwise, to take out the Wrinkles and Creafes
occafion'd by the Force of the Mallets, or Pefilles falling on
the Cloth wheni in the Troughs.
The Smoothing is repeated every two Hours, till the Full-
ing be finifh'd, and the Cloth brought to its proper Breadth:
after which, it is wafh'd in clear Water, to purge it of the
Soap, and given, all wet, to the Carders, to raife the Hair, or
Nap, on the right Side, with the Thifie, or Weed; where-
with they give it two courfes, the firPc again the Grain, from
Tail to Head ; the fecond with the Grain, from Head to
The Cloth being dry'd after this Preparation, the Sheer-
man takes it, and gives it its firil cut, or iheering.
This done, the Carders refume it, and after wetting it,
give it as many more courfes with the Weed as the quality
of the Stuff requires: always observing to begin againil the
Hair, and to end with it; and to begin with a fmoother
Weed, proceeding fill to a {harper and fharper, as far as
the fixtr degree.
. After this, the Cloth being dry'd, is return'd to the Sheer-
man, who lheers it a fecond time, and returns it to the Car-
der; who wetting it, gives it as many courfes as he thinks
fit, dries it, and gives it back again to the Sheerman; who
after Iheering it the third and alel time, returns it to the
Carders, who repeat their Operation as before, till the Hair,
or Nap, be well rang'd on the Surface of the Cloth, from
'One end of the Piece to the other.
It mull be obferv'd, that 'tis indifpenfibly neceffary the
Cloth be wet, while in the Carders hands; in order to which,
'ris fprinkled from time to time with Water.
The Nap finifh'd, and the Cloth dry'd, the Sheerman
gives it as many cuts as he thinks requifite for the Perfeffion
of the Stuff. It mutl alfo be obferv'd that all the Sheerings
mufi be on the right Side, except the two laff, which mutt
be on the other ; and that the Cloth can't be too dry for
The Cloth thus wove, fulled, nap'd, and Mhorn, is fent to
the Dyer. See DYING.
When dy'd, 'tis walh'd in fair Water, and the Sheerman
takes it again, wet as it is, lays the Hair, or Nap, with a
Brulh on a Table, and hangs it on the Tenters; where it
is firetch'd both in length and breadth, enough to fmooth it,
fet it fquare, and bring it to its proper Dimenfions, without
flraining it too much; observing to brufh it afrefh, the way
of the Hair, while yet a little moifi on the Tenter.
When quite dry, the Cloth is taken off from the Tenter,
and bruth'd again on the Table, to finifh the laying of the
Hair: 'Tis then folded, and laid cold under a Prefs, to make
it perfecfly fmooth and even, and to give it a little Lufire.
The Lufire is given by laying a Leaf of Vellom, or fine
Pafiboard in each Plait of the Piece; and over the whole a
fquare Plank of Wood: on which, by means of a Lever, the
Screw of the Prefs is brought down, with the degree of Force
judg'd necefrary, with regard to the Quality of the Cloth.
There are none but Scarlets, Greens, Blues, Fic. which
receive this lail Preparation; Blacks needing it not.
Lafily, the Cloth being taken out of the Prefs, and the Pall-
boards remov'd; it is in a condition for Sale or Ufe.
For the Manufadfure of mix'd CLOTHiS, or thofe wherein
the Wools are firfi dy'd, then mix'd, fpun, and wove of the
Colours intended; the Procefs, except in what relates to the
Colour, is moflly the fame with that jull fpoke of.
The Method of adjufling the Mixture, is by firff making
a Felt of the Colours of the intended Cloth, as a Specimen:
The Wool of each Colour is weigh'd, and when tfie S ect
men is to the Manufaiurer's Mind, he mixes, for ufe, a
Quantity in the fame proportion; eflimating each Grain of
the Specimen at zo Pounds weight of the fame Wool in the
Clorb to be made.
Thus, if he would mix three Colours, ou
Feuillemort, and pale Blue, the firft to be
lour ; he weighs a Quantity of each 'for i
of the firfl,1 5 of the fecond, and 2o ol
multip lies each by 2o Pounds of Wool; at
Pounds for the Coffee Wool; 500 Pounds fc
and 400 for the pale Blue.
The Wools of the Specimen thus Wei
oil'd, carded, moiilen'd with clear Water,
Soap, and in this flate wrought a long tin
till being perfeatly full'd, they are reduc'
Felt, like that us'd by Hatters.
'Tis then rinfed in Water, to purge out
and when dry, the Hair, or Nap is can
Weed; then fhorn once again, till the Gi
the feveral Colours be discoverable.
Lafily, wetting it a little, and preflmg in
well, and if he be not contented with i
Felt; if he be, he proceeds to mix his Wc
'ris beat on Hurdles, clean'd, oil'd, carde(
as IIn Wals 1v.
Incombuftible CLOTH. See LINUM   Incombuftibile.
CLOUD, in Phyfiology, a Colleaion of condens'd
pour. See VAPOuR.
A Cloud is a Congeries of watery Particles, or  Tg
rais'd from the Waters or watery parts of the Earth, byi th
folar, or fubterraneous Heat, or both;  which at their firftoi
from  our Globe, are too minute to be perceiv'd; but as tdeo
mount, meeting with a greater degree of cold, are condense
and render'd opaque by the reunion of their Parts; fo as to r
flea Light, and become vifible. See CONDENSATION.;
The manner wherein Vapours are rais'd into Clouds DUay
be conceiv'd thus
Fire being of a light, agil Nature, eafily breaks loofe froni
Bodies wherein 'tis detain'd: For the manner whcreof, Joe
Now, by reafon of the exceeding fmallnefs of the Parti-
cles of Fire, their attraative Force muff be exceeding great :
hence, in their Afcent thro' fluid Bodies, part of the Fluid
will cling around them, and mount up together with them,
in form of Veficles of Water replete with Particles of Fire,
which Veficles are what we call Vapour. See FIRE, anI
Further, this Vapour being Specifically lighter than Air,
mounts in it, till having reach'd fuch a Region of the A-
mofphere as is of the fame fpecific Gravity, with themfelves,
they will be fufpended; till the watery Veficles, which were
at firft too thin to be perceiv'd, being now condens'd by the
Cold of the fuperior Regions; and their included igneQi
Particles extin , or at leadt driven into a lefs compals, an
confequently the Parts fet clofer together; their Denfity ii
firfi augmented fo as to render 'em opaque enough to refleaI
the Sun's Light, and become vifible; and their fpecific Gra
vity increas'd, fo as to make 'em defcend: in the formei
State they are called Clouds ; and in the latter, when they
arrive at us, Rain. See RAIN; fee alfo BAROMETER.
Clouds, befide their ufe when they defcend in Rain, are
likewife of ufe while fufpended in the Atmofphere ; as the'
help to mitigate the exceffive Heat of the Torrid Zone, and
fcreen it from the Beams of the Sun, especially when in his
CLOVE, an~aromatic Fruit, bore on a Tree of the fame
Name; by the Latins alfo called Caryopbhillu. See SPIcz
This Tree was antiently very common in the Molucca
Iflands.; where all the European Nations, who traffick iu
Spices to the Indies, furnifh'd themfelves with what quan.
tity of Cloves they requir'd. At prefent there are.fcarce aly
found but in the Ifland of 1iZernate: the Dutch, in order to
render themselves Mailers of that Merchandife, havingc dug
up the Clove-Trees of the Moluccos, and tranfplanted themn
to fl'ernate ; fo that there are none now to be had but to
their Hands.
The Tree is very large; it only bears Fruit once in cigk*
Years, but holds, at this rate, an hundred.  Its Bark refi.&
bles that of the Olive-Tree, and its Leaves thofe of i
Laurel : Its Fruit falling, takes root, and thus multiplies
of it felf without any culture. 'Tis faid, it will not allow
any other Herb or Tree nearit; its exceffive heat drawiIg
to it all the Humidity of the Soil.
When the Clove firil begins to appear, it is of a greenish
white ; as it ripens it grows brown : Nor is there any NeC-
paration neceffary in order to render it fuch as it comes to
us, but to dry it in the Sun 5:whatever fome Authors talk
of firml fleeping it in Sea-Water, to preferve it fromnWorms .
The Fruit is foniewhat in -form of a Nail i whence tho
Term Clove, from the French Cloa, Nail.
Towards the Head it feparates into four; the four QjWar
ters being made angle-wife, and their Apices meeting at th
top, form a kind of Crown, Somewhat in the antique manner;
They mult be chofen dry, brittle, ffharp to the Toucbk
well grown, of a dulky Ted Colour; a hot aromatic Tale, an
agreeable Smuell,.and, if poflible, with the Fufl, or Button.
*   I                        aTh

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