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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Capillation - catholick,   pp. 153-172 PDF (19.8 MB)

Page 160

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'Tis occafion'd by lharp Humours, which prick and vel-
licate that Orifice, and the adjoining Parts. The Word
comes from the Greek x4pPas, Heart, and axA, Pain.
llancbard makes the Difeafe confift in a Gnawing, and
Contraaion of the Par vagum, and the intercoflal Nerves
implanted in the Stomach; proceeding from a pungent vel-
licating Matter in the Stomach it felf: which, by reafon of
the Confent of Parts, affects the Heart ; firaitning and
contracting it fo, as fometimes to occafion fwooning. See
CONSENT of Parts.
CARDINAL, a Term ferving to exprefs the Relation,
or Quality of Prime, Principal, molt Confiderable; or, the
Foundation of any thing. Thus, we fay, the four Cardinal
Virtues, viz. Prudence, Juftice, Fortitude, and Tempe-
rance; which are the Bafis of all others. So, the Cardinal
Points, Cardinal Winds, Zec.
The Word is form'd of the Latin Cardo, a Hinge; it
being cn thefe Fundamental Points, that all the refi of the
fame kind feem to turn.
CARTI4NAL Points, in Cofmography, are the four Inter-
feclions of the Horizon, with the Meridian, and the prime
vertical Circle. See POINT.
Of thefe, two, viz. the Interfcibon of the Horizon and
Meridian, are called Nortb and South, with regard to the
Poles they are direded to. See NORTH, and SourH.
To determine the Places of thofe Points, fee MERIDIAN
Line. The other two, viz. the Interfetion of the Hori-
zon and firfm Vertical, are call'd Eafi and Weft. See EAST,
and WEST.
The Cardinal Points, therefore, coincide with the four
Cardinal Regions of the Heavens; and are 9oQ diflant
from each other. The intermediate Points are call'd Col-
lateral Points; fee COLLATERAL Poinlts.
CARDINAL Points of the Heaven, or, of a Nativity, are
the Rifing and Setting of the Sun; the Zenith and Nadir.
CARDINAL Winds, are thofe that blow from the Cardi-
nal Points. See WIND.
CARDINAL Numbers, in Grammar, are the Numbers
one, two, three, Cc. which are indeclinable; in oppofiti
on to the Ordinal Numbers, fecond, third, fourth, edc. See
CARDINAL, is particularly us'd for an Ecclefiaflick Prince,
or one who has a Voice, both adtive and pailive, in the
Rom jib Conclave, at the Eleaion of a Pope. See CON-
The Cardinals compofe the Pope's Council, or Senate:
In the Vatican is a Conflitution of Pope 7ohn, which re-
gulates the Rights and Titles of the Cardinals; and
which declares, that as the Pope reprefents Mofes, fo the
Vardinals represent the 70 Difciples, who, under the Pon-
tifical Authority, decide private and particular Differences.
Cardinals, in their firei Inflitution, were only the prin-
cipal Priefls, or Incumbents of the Parifhes of Rome. In
the primitive Church, the chief Pried of a Parilh, who
immediately follow'd the Bifhop, was call'd Presbyter
Cardinalis; to diflinguith him from the other petty Priefis,
who had no Church, nor Preferment: The Term was firie
apply'd to them in the Year 150; others fay, under Pope
Silvefler, in the Year 300. Thefe Cardinal Priefis were
alone allow'd to baptize, and adminifter the Eucharift.
When the Cardinal Jriefls became Bilhops, their Cardi-
*zalate became vacant; they being then fuppos'd to be rais'd
to a higher Dignity.  Under Pope Gregory, Cardinal
Priefis, and Cardinal Deacons, were only fuch Priells or
Deacons, as had a Church or Chapel under their Cure:
And this was the original ufe of the Word. Leo IV. in
the Council of Rome held in 853, calls them  TPresbyteros
jfui Cardinis ; and their Churches, Parochias Cardinales.
The Cardinals continu'd on this footing till the XIth
Century: But as the Grandeur and State of his Holinefs
became exceedingly augmented, he would have his Coun-
cil of Cardinals make a better figure than the antient
,Priefls had done. 'Tis true, they ffill preferv'd their an-
tient Title; but the Thing exprefs'd by it was no more.
'Twas a good while, however, e'er they had the Precedence
over Bilrhops, or got the Elecaion of the Pope into their
Hands : but when they were once poflrefs'd of thofe Privi-
leges, they foon had the red Hat and Purple; and grow-
ing fill in Authority, became at length fuperior to the
Bilhops, by the fole Quality of being Cardinals.
I Du Cange obferves, that originally there were three
Kinds of Churches: The genuine Churches were properly
call'd Pardhihes; the fecond Deaconries, which were Cha-
pels join'd to Hofipitals, and ferv'd by Deacons; the third
were fimple Oratories, where particular Maifes were held,
and were difcharg'd by local and refident Chaplains. He
adds, that to dkilinguifh the Principal, or Parilh Churches
from the Chapels,, and Oratories, the Name Cardinales was
given them. Accordingly, Parilh-Churches gave Titles
to Cardinal Priefls; and fome Chapels alfo, at length,
gave the Title of Cardinal fDeacons. Others obferve, that
id~ T   iv Jh-ff 5, f7Att7.- y *L ., our. alto
to Bishops and Deacons, who were attach'd to certain
Churches; to diftinguilh 'em from thofe who only, fervId
'em en paffianr, and by Commiflion. Titulary Churches,
or Benefices, were a kind of Parilhes, i. e. of Churches af-
fign'd each to a Cardinal Prieft ; with fome flated Diflri&
depending on it, and a Font for adminifiring of Baptifm,
in Cafes where the Bilhop himfelf could not adminiller it.
Thefe Cardinals were fubordinate to the Bilhops; and ac-
cordingly, in Councils, particularly that held at Rome in
868, fiubfcrib'd after them. It was not, however, only at
Rome, that Priefts bore this Name; for we find there were
Cardinal Priefts in France: Thus, the Curate of the Pa-
rifh of St. 7ohn de Vignes, is call'd in old Charters the
Cardinal Prieft of that Parifh. The Title of Cardinal is
alfo given to fome Bifhops, quatenus Bithops; e. gr. to
thofe of Mentz and Milan: The Archbifhop of 7Bourges
is alfo, in antient Writings, call'd Cardinal; and the
Church of   'ourges a Cardinal Church.  The Abbot of
Vendome calls himfelf Cardinalis Natus.
The Cardinals are divided into three C!afles, or Orders;
containing 6 Bilhops, 5o Priefis, and 14 Deacons; making,
in all, 70: which conflitute what they call the Sacred
College. See COLLEGE. The Cardinal B /hops, who are,
as it were, the Pope's Vicars, bear the Titles of the
Bifliopricks avferr1ed to 'em ; the refp take fuch Titles as
are aflign'd 'em: The Number of Cardinal Bilhops has
been fix'd; but that of Cardinal Prieffs and Deacons, and
confequently the Sacred College itfelf, is aiways fluduating.
Till the Yeat Ir z, the College only confifted of 52, or
53: The Council of Conflance reduc'd them to 24.; but
Sixtus IV. without any regard to that Reftriaion, rais'd
them again to 53, and Leo to 65. Thus, as the Number
of Cardinal Priefis was antiently fix'd to 28, new Titles
were to be eftablifh'd, in proportion as new Cardinals were
created. For the Cardinal !Deacons, they were originally no
more than feven, for the 14 Quatters of Rome ; but they
were afterwards increas'd to i ,, and again diminiih'd.
Some fay, the Cardinals were fo call'd from the Latin
Incardinatio, the Adoption any Church made of a Prieft
of a foreign Church, driven thence by Misfortune; and
add, that the ufe of the Word commenc'd at Rome and
Ravenna; the Revenues of the Churches of which Cities
being very great, they became the common Refuge of the un-
happy Priefis of all other Churches. According to Onu-
phrius, it was Pope Pitus IV. who firfi enaled, in I 562,
that the Pope Thould be chofen only by the Senate of Car-
dinals: whereas, till that Time, the Eleclion was by all
the Clergy of Rome. Some fay, the Eleclion of the Pope
refled in the Cardinals, exclufive of the Clergy, in the
Time of Alexander III. in 1 16o. Others go higher frill,
and fay, that Nicholas II. having been eleaed at Sienna,
in 1oS8, by the Cardinals alone, occafion'd the Right of
Eleclion to be taken from the Clergy, and People of Rome;
only leaving 'em that of confirming him by their Confent*
which was at length, however, taken from them. P. Pape-
brocb conjeclures, that it was Honorius IV. who firfl in-
troduc'd Bifhops into the Sacred College i by admitting the
Bifhops Suffragans of the Pope, to whom, of right, it
belong'd to name him; and of there conifituting the firft
Clafs of Cardinals.
The Cardinals began to wear the red Hat at the Council
of Lyons, in 1243. The Decree of Pope Urban VII.
whereby 'tis appointed that the Cardinals be addrefs'd under
the Title of -Eminence, is of the Year i630: till then
they were call'd Illtflrimrimi. See EMINENCE.
The Term Cardinal has alfo been apply'd to Secular
Officers : thus, the Prime Miniflers in the Court of the
Emperor 71heodofius, are call'd Cardinales. And Cajtodo
rus, L. VII. Formul. makes mention of the Cardinal
Prince of the City of Rome. And in the Lift of Officers
of the Duke of Bretagne, i1 r447, we meet with one
Raoul de rborel, Cardinal of ,,uillart, Chancellor, and
Servant of the Vicount de Rohan : which Ihews it to have
been an inferior Quality.
CARDING, in the Manufa~quries, a Preparation of
Wool, Cotton, Hair or Line, by paffing it between the
Iron Points, or Teeth, of two In{'ruments, call'd Cards, to
comb, difintangle, and range the Hairs or Fibres thereof;
and to difpofe it for fpinning, Ec. See SPINNING, and
Before the Wool be carded, 'tis oil'd, or greas'd with
Oil; whereof, one fourth of the Weight of the Wool is
requir'd, for Wool deffin'd for the Woof of Stuffs; and one
eighth for that of the Warp. See CLOTH, WOOF, WARP ,eC.
CARMDO, in Anatomy, the fecond Vertebra of the
Neck; fo call'd becaufe the Head turns upon it. See Eri'
CARDS, or Playing CARDs, are little Pieces of fine
thin Paftboard, whereon are printed divers Points and Fi-
gures; a certain Number, or Afremblage of which, ferve
for the Performance of divers Games; as Baffit, Ombre,
Picquet, Whisk, &c.              1             The
the Term ryrd;*rAl Wa. 0;dA" -t -1., #_ P.

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