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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Capillation - catholick,   pp. 153-172 PDF (19.8 MB)

Page 158

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after his own FAncy, and fupporting his Novelties on the
Notices which God, he faid, had communicated by the
Mouth of Mofes, whofe Depofitory he was: He gain'd
many Pollowers ; and was oppos'd by others, who main-
tain'd, that all which God hadreveal'd to AMofes was writ-
ten. Hence the _7ews became divided into two Scaqs, the
Carvitcs, and T'raditionaries: Among the firft, 7uda, Son
of fJ'abbai, diflnguilh'd himfelf - among the latter, Iillel.
Wolfius reckons not only the Sadducees, but alfo the Scribes,
in the Number of Caraites.  But the Addrefs of the Pha-
rifees prevail'd againff 'em all; and the Number of Ca-
raites decreas'd : Anan indeed, in the VIlith Century,
rqtfiev'd their Credit a little; and Rabbi Schalomon in the
Ikth. Matters went pretty well with them till the XIVth,
but rince that Time they have been on the declining hand.
The Caraites are but little known ; their Works coming
only into very few Hands, even among the greatefi He-
iraiJfs. Buxtorf never faw more than one; Selden two;
M. 'rrigland fays, he has recover'd enough to fpeak of them
with affurance. He afferts, that foon after the Prophets had
ceas'd, the Seaws became divided on the Subjea of Works,
,and Supererogation: fome maintaining their Neceffiity from
Tradition; whilit others, keeping clofe to the written Law,
'cmt 'em afide; and it was from thefe lafi that Caraitifmn
commenc'd. He adds, again, that after the Return from
the fBabyloniJh Captivity, the Obfervation of the Law be-
ing to be re-eilablifh'd,'there were feveral PraEtices found
proper for that End; and thefe once introduc'd, were
loo1L'd upon as effential, and appointed by Mofes; which
was the Origin of Pharifaifm ; as a contrary Party, con-
tinuing to keep clofe to the Letter, founded Caraitifm. See
The modern Caraites, Icon de Modena obferves, have
their Synagogues, and Ceremonies; pretending to be the
fole proper yews, or Obfervers of the Laws of Mofes; cal-
ling the ref+ by the Term Rabbanimn, or Follo'zers of the
Rabbins: Thefe hate the Caraites mortally ; refufing to
ally, or even converfe with them, and treating them as
Mamzerim, or Baflards ; becaufe of their rejcding the
Conflitutions of the Rabbins in Marriages, Repudiations,
Purifications of Women, Tic. This Averfion is fo great,
that if a Caraite would become a Rabbinifi, he would ne-
ver be receiv'd by the other 7ews. See R.&BINS. s
The Caraites, however, don't abfolutely reject all kind
of Traditions ; but only fuch as don't appear well ground-
ed. Selden, who is very exprefs on this Point, in his Uxor
Hebraica, obferves, that befides the mere Text, they have
certain Interpretations, which they call Hereditary, and
which are proper Traditions. Their Theology only feems
to differ from that of the other 7ewTvs, in that it is purer,
and clearer of Superflition : They give no credit to the
Explications of the Cabbalifis, chimerical Allegories, nor
to any Conflitutions of the Talmud, but what are con-
formable to the Scripture, and may be drawn from it by
jufl and neceffary Confequences: Of thefe we lhall give
three notable Infiances.
The firft relating to the Mezouzot, or Parchments which
the yexs tie at all the Gates thro which they ufe to pafs.
The fecond regarding the qlhephillin or zPhilaferies, men-
tion'd in the New Teflament: And the third, the Prohi-
bition of eating Milk, with Flefh. The two firfl, the
_7e-ws pretend, are formally ordain'd in fDeuteronomy, where
'tis faid, " Thou {halt bind them as a Sign on thy Hands,
C' and they lhall ferve thee as Frontlets (Headaalls) be-.
" tweeni thy Eyes ; thou Ifhalt write them on the Pofis of
I thy Houfe." The Caraite Aaron, in his Comment on
thefe Words, maintainI, they are not to be taken literally,
as the Rabbins do, but figuratively; as intimating, that
the 7e-zts, whether entering or going out, fhould be always
mindful of them. For the  r:ephillin, the Caraites rally
the Rabbinifis on their praying with their Phylaaeries, or
Thongs of Leather faflen'd to their Forehead; comparing
them to bridled Afies. This Pafrage the Caraites interpret
figuratively; and in their Interpretation agree with S. Ye-
romn, who takes notice of the Delufion of the PJharifees,
' in writing the Decalogue on Parchment, rolling it up,
4and tying it to their Forehead with Thongs, to have it
" always before their Eyes."  For the third Point, the
Rabbins fay, 'tis commanded in that Text, cc Thou fhalt
" not feeth a Kid in his Mother's Milk ;" but the Caraites
get clear of it by explaining the Patgwge by another,
" Thou Ihalt not take the Mother when with young," which
is natural. Nor have the y7ews any thing to objecd in
behalf of their Interpketation, but its being that of their
Dodors. - Thus the Caraites exempt themselves from an
infinite Number of Ceremonies anid Superflitions, which
the Rabbins have 0flabiifl'd among the other yews. See
Yet, int many TMing,         n all the Superflition of
the Rabbins. Dinah, n hde Setla Karreo-
rtm, treating of thier f;tvat6'obferves, that they are,
in all refpeas as precif and ccrenO s as the Mol rigid
J U  A.,~~~~
Traditionary, in what relates to the 4
Sabbath, Paffover, Feaft of Atonement,
That they obferve Prayers and.Failin
Zitzit, or pieces of Fringe, on the Corners of their Gar-
ments. They hold, that all Sin is effac'd by Repentance,
in which they differ from the Rabbins, who hold, that'
fome are only effac'd by Death. As fbr Circumcifion, they
don't believe it necefliary,with the Traditionaries, that there;
be Blood fhed: Add, that when a Child dies before it be
eight Days old, the Rabbinifis circumcife it after 'tis dead,
that it mayn'r appear uncircumcis'd at the Refurrec&ion;
whereas the Caraites, when they perceive the Child, in
danger, chufe rather to circumcise it e'er the eighth Day.
In Matters of Divorce, the Caraitcs agree with the other
'7ews; and obferve the fame Rules and Retrihiaions in the
killing and dreffing of Beafs; but differ from 'em in the
Kinds of legal Impurities and Pollutions.
Peringer obferves of the Caraites in Lithuania, that
they are very different, both in Afpea, Language, and'
Manners, from the Rabbinifis, wherewith that Country
abounds. Their Mother Tongue is the iarkijh ; and this
they ufe in their Schools and Synagogues. In Vifage they
refemble the Mahometan T'artars. Their Synagogues are
pofited North and South; and the Reafon they give for it,
is, that Salmana/far brought them from the Northward:
So that, in Praying, to look to 7rerzifalem, they mutt turn
to the South. He adds, that they admit all the Books of
the Old Teflament ; contrary to the Opinion of many of
the Learned, who hold that they rejea all but the 'Pen-
Caleb, a Caraite, reduces the Difference between them
and the Rabbinifls to three Points: iff, In that they de-
ny the Oral Law to come from Mofes, and rejedt the Cab-
bala. 2d, In that they abhor the 7almud. -d, In that
they obferve the Feafts, as the Sabbaths, Tic. much more
rigoroufly than the Rabbins do. To this may be added,
that they extend the Degrees of Affinity, wherein Mar-
riage is prohibited, almofi to Infinity. See CABALLA.
CARANNA, is a hard, brittle, refinous Gum, brought
focm fome Parts of the Weft Indies, as Carthagena and
Ne--x Spain ; of an aromatick Flavour, and us'd in Me-
CARAVAN, or CARAVANNE, in the Eafi, is a
Troop, or Company of Travellers, Merchants, and Pil-
grims, who for the greater Security march in a Body, thro
the Defarts, and other dangerous Places, infefled with'
Arabs and Robbers. See CARAVANSEPiA.
There is a Chief, or Aga, who commands each Caravan,
and has under him a Number of Janizaries, or other For-
ces, fufficient for their Defence. The Caravans incamp
every Night near Wells or Rivulets, known to the Guides -
and obferve a Difcipline as regular as in War. They chie !
ly ufe Camels for their Vehicles, by reafon of theoiien-
during a world of fatigue, eating little, and pafling three
or four Days without drinking.
The Grand Signior gives one fourth Part of the Reve-
nues of Egypt, to defray the Expence of the Caravan that
goes yearly to Mecca, to vifit Mlahomet's Tomb: The
Devotees, in this Caravan, are about 40000; accompany'd
with Soldiers to proteff them from the Pillage of the Arabs,
and follow'd with eight or nine thoufand Camels, laden
with all neceftary Provifions for fo long a Pa Thge acrofs
Defarts. Days Journeys are diflinguifh'd in the F~afl, into
Journeys of Horfe-Caravans, and Caravans of Camels:
thofe of Horfes are equal to two of Camels. There are
feveral Caravans go yearly from Aleppo, Cairo, and other
Places, to Perfia, Mecca, f'ebes, &c.
There are alfo Sea Caravans eflablifli'd on the fame
Footing, and for the fame Purpofes: Such is the Caravan
of Veffels, from Conflttianople to Alexandria.
The Word comes from the Arabic Cairaran, or Cairaan;
and that from  the Perfian Kerran, which fignifies the
fame thing.
The Term Caravan is alfo us'd for the Voyages or Cam-
paigns, which the Knights of Malta are oblig'd to mak~e
at Sea, againfi the laurks and Corfairs i in order to arrive~
at the Commandries and Dignities of the 'Order. They
are thus call'd, becaufe the Knights have frequently feiz'd
the Caravan going from Alexandria to Cpnftantinople.
CARAVANSERA, a large publick Buildirg, or Inrn,
deflin'd to receive and lodge the Caravans. fee CAR AkVAN
Of thefe Caravanfera's, or, as Chardin calls 'em, ara-
vanjeraz, tnere are a great .Number throughout the ]
ereaed out of the Charity and Magnificence of the
ces, Wlc. of the feveral Countries.
'Thof of Schira and Casbin, in TPr/a,' are aidd to
coil 60000 Crowns They are open to People of all
gions And ~ UU1147-iz Without any Xueitions 3ai d, or a
Th6II~ 6refill ra u. re,~ f
Thel Caritaa~brai are ufually huge fquare
with a fiacioui Court -in the middle thereof.
encompali'd with Galle ies and Arches, under w:

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