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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

Bombard - burning,   pp. 115-134 PDF (20.3 MB)


Page 120


( 120)
BOSPHORTJS, in Geography, a Streight, Channel, or
narrow Sea, which, it is fiippofed, a Bullock may fwim
over.
This Name is now confin'dito two Streights in the Me-
diterrancan Sea; viz. the Bofphrus of # brace, common-
ly call'd, the Streights of Conjiawtinople, or Chnel ofthe
Wlack Sea; and the (yntmnerian fqjfhorus, now more
commonly call'd the Streights of Kaphc, or Kiderleri,
from two Cities Branding on it..
The Word is originally Greek, and is form'd from ,i, 'os,
and ;pce, I carry; or from k,4 and ir#p@-, Pa   ge. The Ety-
MoloRy of the Word is pretty well agreed on; but the-
Reafon why it was given, is extremely controverted: Nym-
phisus tells us, on the Authority of Accarion, that the
Phbr~gians, defiring to pafs the Thracian Streight, built
a Veitel, on whofe Prow was. the Figure of a Bullock.
Plivy, Dionyflvs, Val. Flaccvs, iPolyius, Callimachus, &c.
fay, that Io being transform'd into a Cow by Yuno, pafs'd
this Streight; which hence was call'd s ofporus. Arrian
tells us, that the cPhrygians were enjoin'd by the Oracle,
to follow the Rout which a Bullock fhould mark out to
'cm; and that upon ifirring one up, it jump'd into the Sea
to avoid their Purfuit, and fwam over this Streight. Others
fay, that an Ox, tormented by a Gad-fly, threw it felf in
and fwam over; and others, that antiently the Inhabitants
of thefe Coafls, when they would pafs over, join'd little
Boats together, and had 'em drawn over by Bullocks, &c.
The Cimixncrian Bofphorns feems to have been fo call'd,
from its resemblance to the fl'racian.
BOSSAGE, or fBofcage, in Architedure, is us'd for any
Stone that has a Projedurc, and is laid in its Place in a
Building uncut; to be afterwards carv'd into Mouldings, Ca-
pitals, Arms, $;c. fBcfges, are alfo what we otherwife call
Ruilick Work; confifting of Stones which feem to advance
beyond the naked of a Building, by reafon of Indentures,
or Channels left in the Joinings; ufed chiefly in the
Corners of Buildings, and thence call'd Ruflick kloins.
The Cavity or Indenture is fometimes round, Sometimes
fquare, fometimes cham frain'd, or bevel'd; fometimes
in the Diamond Form: Sometimes it is inclos'd with a
Cavetto, fometimes with a LifIel.
BOTANY, the Science of Herbs; or that part of Medi-
cine, and Agriculture, which treats of Plants, whether Me-,
dicinal or others ; their feveral Kinds, Forms, Virtues
and Ufes. The Word comes from the Greek i4o14n", Herb;
and that from /RoT, ('5icfals; and pora; from boc, Ifeed;
becaufe mofi Animals feed on Herbs. See MEDICINE, and
GARDENING.
The moft eminent RlotaniJls among the Antients, were
HiNpecrarcs, Paracelfis, 7Diofcorides, Pliny, Galen, &c. In
the XVIth Century, the antient Botany, which had been loft
a, great many Ages, was indufirioufly reviv'd; principally by
Leoniceuzis, fBrafavolus, Cordus, Fuctfius, Matthiolus, EDale-
bhaniPilis, &c. In the fame Century a Number of other
Hands were added to the Oar; by whofe Indufiry, the
Art was firfl brought into a Syllem or Body; as Gefner,
Dcodoneus, Cefalpinrs, Cluf hs, Lobel, Columna ProJber
,Alpinits, the two fRafhins, Plukenet, &c. Others have
come fince, and contributed to bring it fill nearer Perfec-
tionl; viz. Morifion, Malpeghi, Herman, Ray, Magnol,
'foziraeftrt, Sloan, &c. See HERB, PLANT, -C.
BOTE, in our old Law-Books, fignifies Compenfation,
Recompence, or Amends: Hence Afan-bote or AMon-botc,
amends for a Man flain, who was bound to another; hence al-
fo Botclefs ; where no Judgment or Favour will acquit a Man;
as. v. g. for Sacrilege, Uc. Hence alfo our common Phrafe,
7'o boot. See HEnG-BOTE, PLOW-BOTE, HOUSE-BOTE, UC.
BOTTOMAGE, or BOTTOMRY, is when the Mailer of
a Ship borrows Money upon the Bottom or Keil of it; fo
as to forfeit the Ship it Felf to the Creditor, if the Money
be not paid at the Time appointed, with the Intereft of
forty or fifty Pounds per Cent. at the Ship's fa-fi Return:
But if the Ship mifcarry, the Lender lofes his Money, and
therefore the Intereff is ufually fo great. Others fate it
thus ; one Man lends Money to a Merchant who wants it to
t raffick, and is to be paid a greater Sum at the Return of
the Ship; fanding to the Hazard of the Voyage: So that
tho the Intereft be illegal, yet it is not eleem'd Ufurv.
t v C ~~~~-         I
BOTTONY, a Term in Heraldry, for
one of their Croffes, of this Figure; Argent
a Crofs fBottoiy Sable, by the Name of
Minvood.
BOUCHE of Court, or vulgarly BUDGE of Court, is to
have Meat and Dtink fcot-free there: In which Sence the
French fay, Avoir Boutche a la Cour, to be in Ordinary at
Court. This Pri'vilege is fometimes only extended to
Bread, Beer and Wine. 'Twas a Cufom antiently in ufe,
as well in the Houfes of Noblemen, as in the King's Court.
See MoUrn.
)3For
DV
BOULDER-WAtLS,. a kind c
Flints or Pebbles, laid in a flrong
the Sea has a Beach cafi up, or wh
Flints. See, WALL.     I
BOULTINE, in Archite&ure,
for a Moulding, whofe Convexity i
placed next below the Plinth, in th
tapital. See QyV urTEa-RouND, an
BOURGERMESTERS, or Sa
Magiftrates in the Cities of German
ders. To them belongs the vivin
Government, Adminifiration of? Jul
nances of the Place: Tho the Autf
Ylourgermefler is not every where al.
its Particular Laws and Statutes.
from the two Flemi/b Words, f/orge
and Afeefter, Mafter. Some exprels
ful, others by Senator. M. fBrunead
germefter, in Holland, anfwcrs to v
and Sheriff in England; Attorney
at lholoufe, Cbnful in Languedoc, &
BOUTANT, in Architeaure. An
or Buttrefs, ferving to, fuflrain a Vauli
fuffained by fome Arong Wall or M
boatant, is a large Chain or Jaumb o
port a Wall, Terrafs, or Vault.
and comes from the Verb Router, Jo
BOUTS RIMEZ, a popular Ten
try; fignifying certain Rhimes, difpos
to a Poet together with a Subje&,
Verfes ending in the fame Word, an(
The Invention of the !Bouts Ritezz,
Lot, a Poet, in the Year 1649. In i
ufual to chufe fuch as feem the wild(
Connexion. Some good Authors fan
are of all others the leafi perplexing
new Matter of all others. Sarrafin h
feat of the fBouts Rimez. The Acac
contributed towards keeping in Cx
Rimez; by propofing each Year a 4
up on the Glories of the Grand Mv,
ous Sonnet to be rewarded with a fine
hereof is the following one, fill'd up I
ftout eJfgrand dans le Roi, I'Afpell
Rend nos fiers Ennemis plus froids
Et Guillaume n'attend que le rems
Pour fe voir Soccomber fous Un br4
,Zlon me nous vante plus les Mirai
Loieis de bien regnir lUi feroit des
Horace en vain I' egale aux Dieux
Moins que mon Heros il etoitfage E
BOW, a Beam of Wood, or Bj
Screws, that govern or direa a Lath
any Arch: Us'd commonly to dras
Projecions of the Sphere; or, where
draw large Arches.
Bow is alfo an Inffrument formerd
ing of a large Arch of go Degrees gra
and a Shank or StafF; a Shade-Van
an Horizon-Vane.
Bow of a Ship, is that Part of her
Loof, and compafling Ends at the Si
Sternmofi Part of the Fore-Caftle. I
fBov, they call it a bold fow ; if fhl
IBIo, they fay fhe hath a lean !BEow.
nance that lies in this Place, is call'<
Ordnance; and the Anchors that han
Great or Little fBower.
BOWBEARER, an under Officer of
obferve and take notice of all mannt
or Venifon; and to attach, or caufe t
fenders, in the next Court of Attachm
BOWER, an Anchor carry'd at th
call'd her lvver: There are ufually
firft and fecond fBower; but the gre
in the Hold.
BOWLING, or rather Bow-LINI
the Leach, or middle Part of the Ou
Ship, fix'd in three or four Parts ol
fo twling-bridle: The Mizen-?owlis
lower End of the Yard. All Sails h
cept the Sprit-fail, and Sprit-fail-to
thofe Sails cannot be ufed clofe by a I
fowuling being to make the Sails flar
by a Wind. The Terms are, Shari
yp the fowling,   t fafthe !Bowlin
hard, more forward on: But when th
ling, check, or runfle the Bo~wline; tb
flack. A fBo'wling-K-not, is a K not 1
which the fBowling-Bridle is fafren'd
B OU
bufie,
Glacons -
Moiflrons,
robufle.
AugufLe-
Lecons:
Chanfons.
jufie, &e.


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