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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

Bombard - burning,   pp. 115-134 PDF (20.3 MB)


Page 119


B O R
lk~me$S and Situatjon Qf
tIie Stars.
North in the hind Leg
Agft.pofterior Thigh, under theGird.
In the hind Leg
lirat of 3 over the Head
Lonojiude
< Longitude.
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In the pofferior Hand              29
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In the Extrem. bf the Staff's Handle 1t o
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North of the middle ones in the Staff a
South in the Extrem. of the Staff
More North
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BORAX, a Mineral Salt, ufed in foldering, brazing,
and calling Gold and other Metals; known to the Antients
under the Name of Cbryfocolla. Pliny divides Borax in-
to Natural and Artificial: The Natural, according to him,
is only a flimy Humor running in Mines of Gold, Silver,
Copper, and even Lead ; which being congeal'd and har-
den'd by the Winter's Cold, becomes of the Confiflence
of Pumice-Stone. For Artificial Borax, he fays, 'tis made
,by letting Water run in the Veins of the Mine, all the
Winter long, till 7une ; and letting the Mine dry, the reft
of the Year. So that Artificial Borax, according to him,'
is no more than the Mineral putrify'd and corrupted.
The fame Author difiinguifhes Borax into Black, Green,
Yellow and White; affluming their feveral Colours, as
well as Values, from the feveral Mines whereof they are
form'd. The Natural, according to him, is heavier than
the Faffitious.
The Moderns, in like manner, difinguifh two Kinds
of Borax; Natuzral, call'd Crude; and ,Artificial, which is
prrify'd and refin'd. The Natural is a Mineral Salt, of
the comamon Form, dug out of the Earth in feveral Parts
of (Per/a; and found alfo at the Bottom of a Torrent,
running in the Mountains of Pzrbeth, near the Frontiers
of Whnite Tartary: When taken up, 'tis expos'd to the
Air; where it acquires a kind of reddilh Fat, which ferves
to feed it, and prevent its calcining. When in its Perfec-
tion, 'tis fent to A4madabat, in the Territories of the
Great Mogol, where the European Merchants buy it.
There is another kind of Artificial Borax; drier, and of a
greyilh Colour, like Engflih Copperas; only differing from
the former, by its being longer expos'd to the Air.
For Artificial Borax, it was the Venetians who firil
found out the Art of preparing it; or, rather, of purify-
ing the Natural: 'Tis done by diffolving it in Water;
then filtrating and cryflallizing it: ufing, or that purpofe,
Cotton Matches; about which the Borax cryilallizes, like
Sugar candy and Verdigreafe on Wood. The fDutch, after
refining it, reduce it into little Pieces, like tagged Points;
-and 'tis thus commonly us'd.
Borax, refin'd, either in the fDutch or Venetian manner,
Should be clear and tranfparent, almofl infipid to the Tafte;
and above all, Care mutt be taken it have no Mixture of
Englijh Allom. Borax is of fome ufe in Medicine, as it
enters the Compofition of the Unguent Citrin. 'Tis alfo
ufed in the Preparation of a Fucus for the Ladies.
A Agricola fays, there is a fofflile Nitre, as hard as that
whereof the Venetians make Borax: In which he has Rea-
Z fon; this Niire being nothing but the Per/ian. Borax a-
bovemention'd. What he adds, that the Venetian Borax
is made of the Urine of young People who drink Wine,
beat in a Mortar to the Confiflence of an Unguent; then
nmix'd with Iron Ruff and Nitre: is not only falfe, but is a
.MifreprefentationofaPaflageinPlii2y, Htfl.Nat.L-33-c-5-
BORDERS, among Florifis,.are fuch Leaves as fland
about the middle Thrum of a Flower. See FLOWER.
BORD-HALFPENNY, or Brod-h4fiy.               Money
paid in Markets, and Fairs, for fetting up- Boi lsSables,
and Stalls, for the Sale of Wares.
BORD-LANL  s, Lands antiently kept by the Lords in
their Hands, for the Maintenance of their Bcard or Fami-
ly. This was alfo antiently call'd Bordage.
fon-Service. A Tenure of !Bord-Lands; where the
Tenants are to pay fo much per Acre, in lieu of finding
Provilion for their Lord'&s Bard, or Table.
B130 S
BORDURE, in Heraldry, d kind of Ad.
dition on the Limb of a Shield, in Form of
a Hem, or Girdle, encompaffing it all round,
and ferving as a Diffrence ; fee DIFFE-
RENCE. The Bordure mufl be about one
fixth Part of the Breadth of the Shield,
A fimple Bordure. is that whih- is of the
fame Colour or Metal throughoui t- and is the firil Ad-
dition of younger Brothers: There are others, Compo-
ned, Counter'd, Ingrail'd, Indented, and Cbarg'd with
other Pieces; which make different Additicns for younger
Brothers, in feveral Degrees. If the Line which conl'i-
tutes the Bordure be fireight, and the Bordure Plain, as
they call it in Blazoning, the Colour of the Bordure
alone is named; He beareth Gules, a Bordure Or.  If
Bordure be charg'd with any Parts of Plants or Flowers
they fay, Verdoy of Trefoils. If it confide of Ermins, Vai;
ry, or any of the Furs, the Term is, Purfle-w of Ermins -
If'the Bordure be charg'd with Martlets, the Word is'
Charg'd with an Enaluron of Martletv, TicI
BOREAS, a Greek Name, now in popular ufe, for the
North Wind; tho Pczron obferves, antiently, and with
much greater Propriety, it fignify'd the North-Eaft Wind,
at the Time of the Summer Soliice: He adds, that the
Word comes from the Celtic Word Bore, Morning ; in re-
gard their principal Light, in that Seafon, came from that
Quarter, whence alFo thofe Winds ufually blew.  The
common Etymologies fetch it either from the Greek BoAl
Clamour or Noife ; or Boy, Lfca, Food; becau~e it occa-
flons an Appetite, or becaufe it is good for the Fruits of the
Earth, which yeild us Food: Others from the Hebrew,
Birjah, Food; or Bcri, Calmnefs; bor, Purity; or bar,
Corn. The Antients fuppos'd .oreas only blew out of
7'1ra ce.
BOREE, or BOUREE, a kind of Dance, compos'd of
three Steps join'd together with two Motions; and be-
gun with a Crotchet, riting.  The firf: Couplet contains
twice four Meafures, and the fecond twice eight. It con-
fins of a balance Step and a Coupee: 'Tis fuppos'd to come
fromn Aivergne.
BOROUGH, or BcRow, or B~t1RH, is frequently us'd
for a Town Corporate; or a Corporation which is not a
City. See CITY. In which Senfe, a Borotlgh and Corpo-
ration are the fame thing; fee CORPORATION, SC.
Borough, in its Original Saxon Borhoe, was primarily
meant of a Company confining often Families, who were
bound and combin'd together as each other's Pledge. Brac-
ton, L. 3. Tr. 2. c. i9. Afterwards, as Jerftegan has it,
Burg, and Burgh, came to fignify a Town that had _ome-
thing of a Wall or Inclofure about it : But, in later Times,
the fame Appellation was beflow'd on feveral of the V/lla
Infigniores, or Country Towns of more than ordinary Note1
not wall'd. See TOWN, VILLAGE, SC.
BOROUGH, or -Vurgh, is now particularly appropriated to
fuch Towns, and Villages as fend Burge s
tives to Parliament: See BuRGESS.     , or Reprefenta-
Boroughis are equally fuch, whether they be incorporated
or not; there being great Numbers of our E1-agfh Bo-r
roughs not incorporated: And, on the contrary, feveral
Corporations that are not Boroughs ; ex. gr. Kigflzon,
Deal, Kendal, &c.
BoROUGHs, are diflinguilh'd into thofe by Ch-arter, or
Statute or by 'Prefcription, or Cuflom. See PRESCRIP-
TION,  SC.
The Number of Boroughs in England, is I49; fome
whereof fend one, fome two Reprefentativesi SCe PAR-
LIAMENT.
BoROUGH-ENGLISH, in Law, a Cuf'omary Defcent of
Lands or Tenements in fome Places, whereby they come to
the Youngeft, inflead of the Eldell Son; or, if the Owner
have no Iffue, to the Youngeti, inflead of the Eldefi Bro-
ther : for that the Youngefl is fuppolied, in Law, the leaft
able to Ihift for himfelf.
BOLOUGiz-HEAD, or Headborough, is the Chief Man of
the Decury, or Hundred; chofe by the refn to fpeak and
act in their behalf. In many Parifhes it fignifies alfo a
kind of Conflable; where many of them are chofen as his
Affitlants, to ferve Warrants, Lew.
ROYAL BoRouGHs, in Scotland, are Corporations made-
for the Advantage of Trade, by Charters, granted by fe-
veral of their Kings; having the Privilege of fending Com-
miffloners to reprefent 'em  in Parliament, befides other
peculiar Privileges. Thefe fortn' a Body of thernfelves,
and fend Commiffioners, each, to an annual Convention at
Innerskeithing X to confult the Benefit of Trade, and the
general Interest of the Borougls.
BOSCAGE, a     Place fet with Trees, a Grove or Thic-
ket. In a Law Sence it fignifies Mafl, or fuch Suftenance
as Woods and Trees yeild to Cattel: And, amonng Painters,
a Pidlure representing much Wood and Trees,


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